Week 1 Notes
Popular in Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chasia Notetaker on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 12000 at Ithaca College taught by Nancy L Jacobson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E in Biology at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Week of January 25th Science Exploratory/discovery science we observe the world around us and ask questions about it Inductive reasoning making generalizations with enough observations Deductive reasoning being able to make predictions Types of tests Systematic observations predict what you will see if more observations are made, then make those observations Controlled experiments involve a group that varies from the experimental group only in the variable that is of interest Scientific process ★ Inductive reasoning leads to hypothesis ★ Make a prediction based on deductive reasoning ★ Test and tentatively accept hypothesis or reject hypothesis Ex. Camouflage Observation lots of animals match the background of their environment Hypothesis color patterns that match the animal to its environment has evolved as an adaptation to protect the animal Prediction those that don’t match their environment may be attacked by predators more often How to interpret results Use statistics to reduce the number of times errors are made in interpreting results Common mistakes ● Saying variable has an affect when it really doesn’t ● Saying variable doesn’t have an affect when it really does Chi (“kai”)square test (tests categorical data, counts are the measure used) ● tests the null hypothesis ❖ that there is no difference between observed and what you would expect by chance alone ❖ expect no difference between observed and expected values Process ❖ subtract Observed value from Expected value [ OE=D] ➢ square difference ❖ divide each squared difference by the expected value ➢ add the two d/e and that is the Chisquare value ● Why we use stats ○ sampling error can cause errors in conclusion ○ chisquare value must be higher than critical X^2 value to reject null hypothesis, which supports biological hypothesis ○ errors can take place when results are taken from a subset of a group, so remedy this by taking large sample sizes and repeating experiments ● How do we do science ■ get results, what do tests show ■ make a conclusion, do results support hypothesis? Reject hypothesis? ● don’t “prove” hypothesis ■ communicate ● use peer reviewed journals ○ peers are scientists of the same field as you ■ combine results to understand system better ● reductionismunderstanding a part of the system ● ex. controlled experiments ■ systems thinkingunderstanding a whole ● ex: models ways of representing and/or testing how parts influence one another in the whole 1.8 > The process of science Qualitative datadescriptive data Quantitative data numerical measurements that may be organized into tables and graphs Hypothesis proposed explanations for a set of observations testing a hypothesis different ways provides additional support for a hypothesis scientific theory broader in scope than a hypothesis and is supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence ● generates more hypotheses that can be tested ● can explain wide variety of observation ● ex. tectonicplate theory Limits of science ● must be able to make direct or indirect observations ● must be able to make inferences ● can science decide what is moral ○ no, although it can find out what people view as moral ● can science help people/society make moral decisions ○ yes, by informing the general public about scientific findings in the light of morals and giving people enough information to make an informed decision for themselves
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