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Week 1 Notes

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by: Chasia Notetaker

Week 1 Notes BIOL 12000

Chasia Notetaker
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About this Document

Notes from the first week of Biology class.
Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E
Nancy L Jacobson
Class Notes




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"Amazing. Wouldn't have passed this test without these notes. Hoping this notetaker will be around for the final!"
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chasia Notetaker on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 12000 at Ithaca College taught by Nancy L Jacobson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E in Biology at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Week of January 25th    Science  Exploratory/discovery science­ we observe the world around us and ask questions about it    Inductive reasoning­ making generalizations with enough observations    Deductive reasoning­ being able to make predictions    Types of tests  Systematic observations­ predict what you will see if more observations are made, then make  those observations    Controlled experiments­ involve a group that varies from the experimental group only in the  variable that is of interest    Scientific process  ★ Inductive reasoning leads to hypothesis  ★ Make a prediction based on deductive reasoning  ★ Test and tentatively accept hypothesis or reject hypothesis    Ex. Camouflage     Observation­ lots of animals match the background of their environment    Hypothesis­ color patterns that match the animal to its environment has evolved as an adaptation  to protect the animal    Prediction­ those that don’t match their environment may be attacked by predators more often     How to interpret results    Use statistics to reduce the number of times errors are made in interpreting results    Common mistakes    ●  Saying variable has an affect when it really doesn’t  ●  Saying variable doesn’t have an affect when it really does    Chi (“kai”)­square test (tests categorical data, counts are the measure used)  ● ­tests the null hypothesis  ❖ ­that there is no difference between observed and what you would expect by  chance alone  ❖ ­expect no difference between observed and expected values  Process    ❖ ­subtract Observed value from Expected value [ O­E=D]  ➢ ­square difference  ❖ ­divide each squared difference by the expected value  ➢ ­add the two d/e and that is the Chi­square value    ● Why we use stats   ○ ­sampling error can cause errors in conclusion  ○ ­chi­square value must be higher than critical X^2 value to reject null hypothesis,  which supports biological hypothesis  ○ ­errors can take place when results are taken from a subset of a group, so remedy  this by taking large sample sizes and repeating experiments    ● How do we do science  ■ ­get results, what do tests show  ■ ­make a conclusion, do results support hypothesis? Reject hypothesis?  ● ­don’t “prove” hypothesis  ■ ­communicate  ● ­use peer reviewed journals  ○ ­peers are scientists of the same field as you  ■ ­combine results to understand system better  ● ­reductionism­understanding a part of the system  ● ­ex. controlled experiments  ■ ­systems thinking­understanding a whole  ● ­ex: models­ ways of representing and/or testing how parts  influence one another in the whole     1.8      > The process of science  Qualitative data­descriptive data    Quantitative data­ numerical measurements that may be organized into tables and graphs    Hypothesis­ proposed explanations for a set of observations          ­testing a hypothesis different ways provides additional support for a hypothesis  scientific theory­ broader in scope than a hypothesis and is supported by a large and usually  growing body of evidence  ● generates more hypotheses that can be tested  ● can explain wide variety of observation  ● ex. tectonic­plate theory     Limits of science  ● must be able to make direct or indirect observations  ● must be able to make inferences  ● can science decide what is moral  ○ no, although it can find out what people view as moral  ● can science help people/society make moral decisions  ○ yes, by informing the general public about scientific findings in the light of  morals and giving people enough information to make an informed decision for  themselves   


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