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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by awilson28 on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1101 at Georgia State University taught by jung kim in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Ashley Wilson Introduction to Sociology (SOCI 1101) What is Sociology: Foundations Chapter 1 The Sociological Perspective The Sociological Perspective • Sociology: systematic study of human society • Sociological perspective: seeing the general in the particular • Sociologists look for general patterns in the behavior of particular people • Asociety shapes the lives of people in patterned ways that are evident as we discover how various categories live very differently • Lillian Rubin (1976): study that found that higher-income women typically expected the men they married to be sensitive to others, to talk readily, and to share feelings and experiences. Lower-income women, had very different expectations and were looking for men who did not drink too much, were not violent, and held steady jobs • Sociological perspective shows us that factors such as age, sex, race, and social class guide our selection of a partner • Emile Durkheim (1858-1917): sociology pioneer • Social integration: categories of people with strong social ties has laws suicide rates, and more individualistic categories of people had higher suicide rates • Global perspective: study of the larger world and our society's place in it • Higher-income countries: nations with the highest overall standards of living • Middle-income countries: nation with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole • Lower-income countries: nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor Applying The Sociological Perspective • Sociology is at work guiding many of the laws and policies that shape our lives • On an individual level, making use of the sociological perspective leads to important personal growth and expand awareness • Studying sociology is excellent preparation for the world of work • Sociologists have helped shape public policy- the laws and regulations that guide how people in communities live and work- in countless ways, from racial desegregation and school busing to laws regulations divorce • Lenore Weitzman discovered that women who leave marriages typically experience a dramatic loss in income • Using sociology benefits us in four ways: 1. Sociological perspective helps us asses the truth of “common sense” 2. Sociological perspective helps us see the opportunities and constraints in our lives 3. Sociological perspective empowers us to be active participants in our society 4. Sociological perspective helps us live in a diverse world Ashley Wilson Introduction to Sociology (SOCI 1101) The Origins of Sociology • Striking changes took place in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries • Three kinds of change were especially important in the development of sociology; the rise of a factor-based industrial economy, the explosive growth of cities, and new ideas about democracy and political rights • French social thinker Auguste Comte coined the term sociology in 1838 to describe a new way of looking at society • Theological stage, from the beginning of human history to end of the European MiddleAges about 1350 C.E ., people took a religious view that society expressed God's will • Positivism: a way of understanding based on science • Comte's Three Stages of Society: 1. Theological stage: the Church in the MiddleAges 2. Metaphysical stage: the Enlightenment and the ideas of Hobbies, Locke, and Rousseau 3. Positive stage: scientific explanation based on observation, experiment, and comparison Sociological Theory • Theory: statement of how and why specific facts are related • Theoretical approach: as a basic image of society that guides thinking and research • Sociologists make use of three major theoretical approaches: structural-functional, social- conflict, and symbolic-interaction • Structural-functional approach: framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability • Social structure: any relatively stable pattern of social behavior • Social functions: consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole • Manifest functions: the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern • Latent functions: the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern • Social dysfunction: any social pattern that many disrupt the operation of society • Social-conflict approach: framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change • Feminism and gender-conflict approach: point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men • Feminism: support of social equality for women and men • Race-conflict approach: point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories • Symbolic-interaction approach: framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions • Macro-level orientation: broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole • Micro-level orientation: close-up focus on social interaction specific situations • Macro-level orientation ◦ structural-functional and social-conflict approach • Micro-level orientation ◦ symbolic-interaction approach
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