ARTH 342 - History of Japanese Art Week 2
ARTH 342 - History of Japanese Art Week 2 ARTH 342/AST 390
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aryn Singer on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 342/AST 390 at University of Louisville taught by Professor Delin Lai in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see SELECTED TOPICS - History of Japanese Art in Art at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Jomon, Yayoi, and Kofun Periods th Neolithic – 5 Century AD (Chapter 1) Jomon – “Koi Pattern” Period - Jomon, “Koi Pattern”, was used in the decoration of pottery Yayoi – Where the first archaeological finds of the period were found - A district in Tokyo where the first finds were located in actuality. Kofun – “Ancient Tomb” Period - Great tombs erected to emperors and grave goods and art were created in their honor. Jomon Period (11,000 – 400 BC): Prehistoric Sannai Maruyama (equiv. of Mesopotamian and Old Kingdom Egypt period) o Excavation of pits and use of hard woods, such as chestnut wood, to create humble dwellings. Jomon people had only soft rock tools to cut trees; hardwood was preferable in construction because the rock could cut into the bark without bouncing off and away. Bamboo wasn’t available for cutting or harvest until the bronze/iron age due to its hardness. o Raised floors to keep architecture from the too moist ground and to store food beneath the home. o Rope – a sacred and important tool to the Jomon people and beyond; used for tying off wooden braces and in the decoration of pottery. Semper (1803-1879): Four Elements of Architecture o Hearth – fire, ceramics o Roof – carpentry o Enclosure – weaving o Mound – stone masonry Early Jomon (Cord-Mark) Style: o Parallel, horizontal ridges below the lip o Cord-marked, flat bases Rope or cord would be rolled or pressed along wet clay to create a pattern; cord-marked style o Coil pottery – smooth thick walls, built up in long coils and pressed together with fingers. o Rope or bamboo strips were important in early construction Cult of Rope – the love and worship of rope Middle Jomon Period o More decorative; a focus on the surface of the pottery o Rope braids along the top once for functional use, became a part of the decorative aesthetic as well. o Jomon Earthenware Deep Pot Flamboyant presentation; complex ways of tying the rope for decoration Each piece became a symbol of labor and more decorative Symbol of the wealthy Late Jomon Period: o Bottle, Late Jomon High fire, evidenced by the denser texture Geometric design Less flamboyant cord pattern present o “Dogu” Figurine; “Clay” Figurine Clay figures; almost contemporary in appearance Concept of reproduction and the mystery of human birth Representation of a safe deliver of newborns Dynamic representations of a rich hunter’s bounty Avatars for curing diseases and injury, or effigies of people that manifests itself in spiritual magic o Nonakad Stone Group Creation of the sundial Indication of a newfound interest in agriculture and the worship of the sun goddess Amaterasu. Overview o Desire of decoration beyond functional use founded o Ability to apply decorations according to the form of the object to make it visually effective and aesthetically appealing o Use of form to convey certain symbolic meaning o Technique of presentation and representation through the use of forms o Division of labor present, an emergence of the need for an “artist” Yayoi Period (400 BC – 300 AD): (equiv. Alexander the Great and Early Roman Empire) - Chinese recordings of the early Japanese peoples; regarded the Japanese as “immortals” - The Chinese set off on a voyage to Japan to spread Chinese culture and give offerings to the “immortals” - They bring: o Wet-rice cultivation o Bronze-Iron Age (tools + weapons) o Permanently settled communities Observatories (scouting platforms); large houses; Gates and walls surrounding communities (fortifications) - Helping in the Development of: o Class-society and Clan-nations Yayoi Pottery o Introduction of the kicking wheel; begins the mass production of potter o Loss of flamboyant decoration in utensils o Pottery no longer considered a symbol of wealth Now considered a “low” art Geometric form; symmetrical and simple “drag and press” technique; introduced with the wheel o Yomanaka Style pottery Smooth and painted Heinrich Wolfflin – Renaissance und Barock (1888): Renaissance vs. Baroque style o Linear (Yayoi) vs Painterly (Jomon) o Plan vs Recession o Closed Form vs Open Form o Multiplicity vs Unity o Absolute clarity vs Relative Clarity Kenzo Tenge – “Tradition and Creation in Japanese Architecture” o Jomon – dynamic, strong emotion, sense of space, mass, and vigor o Yayoi – peace, calm, and geometric order Representations of how a historic genius and architect reviewed the prehistoric periods in relation of one another. “High” Art o Dotaku – “Bell-shaped Bronze” Yayoi bronze ceremonial bells Pictorial decoration, depicts social life in Yayoi Japan Geometric form with an ovular bell Piece-mold casting technique th Used originally by Chinese as early as 12 century BC Bell is cast from copper, tin, and lead Clay model is created, molded, and hardened with a hollow center where melted bronze is poured and left to harden, then the molding is stripped away and the bronze bell pieces welded together Large maps showing found bell artifacts suggest unified civilizations Early Yamato Kingdom in construct The Dotaku were symbols of wealth and power Bronze artifacts: o North: The Dotaku, a symbol of peace among the civilizations o South: Swords, a symbol of war-time and a potential need to fend off foreign invasion coinciding with a legend Jimmu Tenno “Emperor Jimmu” (660 BC) Simpler military power from the West (foreigner) Conqueror and unifier of Japanese continent Japanese early history is diluted and mixed with legends Kofun Period – “Ancient Tomb” (250 – 552 AD) - Newly founded unified nation state; an emperor has been established - Formation of government in the south, the Yamato ethnicity o Unification process begins in the west and moves eastward (following the legend of Jimmu Tenno. Keyhole Shaped Tombs o Protected by modern day government from excavation, these tombs have been deemed “sacred sites”. o Tombs often have two parts, similar to pyramids Bronze Mirror o Symbolic meaning to the mirror To lure the sun goddess, Amaterasu, out of a cave, the other gods slipped a mirror inside to radiate her own brilliance back at her. Believing she had been replaced, Amaterasu emerged from the cave and gave the sun back to the world o Divine beings and dragons engraved into bronze o Some sacred objects are influenced by foreign cultures Glassware Bean-shaped jewelry, representative of Tiger’s teeth (Korean) Kaya Gold Crown o Delicate crown discovered at Kyonju, which belonged to a queen o Bean shaped ornaments adorn the crown; a tell of Korean influence Japan has frequent communication with China and Korea o The Japanese believed the Koreans to be of inferior blood Emperor Nintoku (16 Emperor); late 4 Century – early 5 centuryh o Tomb erected was a half mile in size, 3 levels in total, and stands as one of the world’s largest tombs 458 acres in total (185 ha) Haniwa – terra cotta clay figures o Human, animal, and boat figurines placed along the top of the tomb o Horses; indicative of war cavalry o Musicians o Architectural clay models similar to Shinto shrines X-structure of the architectures roof and bracing was likely adopted from the Chinese. Shinto (Way of the Gods) + Shinto Shrines (Chapter 1 cont.) Kami – “Gods” o 8 Million gods present in Japanese culture o “Kamikaze” – Japanese suicide pilots; meaning “Divine Wind” The Kamikaze (a typhoon) was attributed to the failure of the Mongolian invasion along with the fierceness of the Japanese warrior and the superior blacksmithing techniques of the Japanese sword o 90,000 shrines are erected and maintained for the Kami; there are different types Simple, open style shrine sites “Shimenawa” – a special plaited rope “Gohei” – symbolic paper offerings that accompany the Shimenawa “Toro Kura” – originally used for rice storage; thatch roofing and an uplifted floor Built around and along open area trees Bronze tools utilized the cutting of rice stalks, grass, and tree barks for the thatch roofing Engraved in the Bronze Mirrors are images of the Shinto shrine with uplifted flooring Sacred, religious connotations Reflects the sun, and the worship of Amaterasu Types of Shinto Shrines o “Shimmei” (Shim – God; Mei – Bright); The Shrine at Ise – the most sacred shrine to Amaterasu o Taisha – The Shrine at Izumo o Nagara – The Shrine of Kamo in Kyoto o Kasuga – Kasuga Shrine in Nara o Hachiman – Usa Hachima Shrine, Octa Prefecture o Hie – Hie Shrine at Shiga *Over time and in the development of these shrine styles, it becomes apparent that the Japanese adopt the Chinese’s design of the curving roof and architecture. Ise Jingo (Ise Shrine) o The architectural style still representative of the Jomon period of architecture o Used in the worship of the Sun Goddess, Amaterasu The worship of the sun goddess developed with the need for agriculture Amaterasu was born from her father’s left eye, Izanage; her mother, Izanam, died giving birth to the god of fire. A shrine, dedicated to Izanage and Izanam, is called the Meoto Iwa, “Husband and Wife Rocks”, where a Shimenawa and Gohei are tied. o The shrine stands in the “neck of the dolphin” of the islands o Naiku “Inner Shrine” is only to be entered by those of high imperial rank The shrine is layered, certain ranks of social class are allowed deeper into the shrine than those of the common classes. The Ikebe Gisho is the visit of the emperor to the Ise Jingo. o Shikinen Sengu Every 20 years, the Ise Shrine is rebuilt in the exact proportions of the original structure as an offering to the sun goddess There are two lots, directly adjacent to one another, for the rebuilding and destruction of each new and old shrine A column marks the original placement of the shrine, called the “Heart Pillar” Sengyo Ceremony The transfer of artifacts and treasure from the old shrine into the new; “Amaterasu Omikami in the Sengu” *Curved bridges serve as a show of transition from one side of a river to another, symbolic of crossing over into another world or realm. Izumo Taisha Shrine o “Great Land Master” Okuninushi God of nation-building, farming, business, and medicine Commoners are only allowed to stay in the worship hall Located in the “dolphin’s forehead”, the shrine faces west and is surrounded by mountains on three sides The mountains provide shelter from winds and keeps it open, on one side, to unfiltered sunshine Thatch roof structure, with a simple four part layout Main column – connection between heaven and earth for the gods to travel freely o Torii – “The Tower of Bird” Marks the boundaries of a shrine and acts as a “gate” to the heavenly realm Kasuga Taisha Shrine o Kasuga Taisha Lantern walk Over 3000 lanterns are lit along the pathway to the shrine at night o Later style architecture, the roof has a noticeable curve o Temizu – the ceremonial purification right before an individual has the right to pray Chozubachi – “ladles” for the purification right; to be hung upside down after use so the water may purify the handle
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