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ARTH 342 - History of Japanese Art Week 2

by: Aryn Singer

ARTH 342 - History of Japanese Art Week 2 ARTH 342/AST 390

Marketplace > University of Louisville > Art > ARTH 342/AST 390 > ARTH 342 History of Japanese Art Week 2
Aryn Singer
U of L
GPA 3.48
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These are notes gathered from the lecture over the past week Since there will be no class on Tuesday, I believe, and we are to be watching a film, there will likely be no notes. The film we will...
SELECTED TOPICS - History of Japanese Art
Professor Delin Lai
Class Notes
Japanese art history Selected Topics




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aryn Singer on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 342/AST 390 at University of Louisville taught by Professor Delin Lai in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see SELECTED TOPICS - History of Japanese Art in Art at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Jomon, Yayoi, and Kofun Periods th Neolithic – 5 Century AD (Chapter 1) Jomon – “Koi Pattern” Period - Jomon, “Koi Pattern”, was used in the decoration of pottery Yayoi – Where the first archaeological finds of the period were found - A district in Tokyo where the first finds were located in actuality. Kofun – “Ancient Tomb” Period - Great tombs erected to emperors and grave goods and art were created in their honor. Jomon Period (11,000 – 400 BC): Prehistoric  Sannai Maruyama (equiv. of Mesopotamian and Old Kingdom Egypt period) o Excavation of pits and use of hard woods, such as chestnut wood, to create humble dwellings.  Jomon people had only soft rock tools to cut trees; hardwood was preferable in construction because the rock could cut into the bark without bouncing off and away.  Bamboo wasn’t available for cutting or harvest until the bronze/iron age due to its hardness. o Raised floors to keep architecture from the too moist ground and to store food beneath the home. o Rope – a sacred and important tool to the Jomon people and beyond; used for tying off wooden braces and in the decoration of pottery.  Semper (1803-1879): Four Elements of Architecture o Hearth – fire, ceramics o Roof – carpentry o Enclosure – weaving o Mound – stone masonry  Early Jomon (Cord-Mark) Style: o Parallel, horizontal ridges below the lip o Cord-marked, flat bases  Rope or cord would be rolled or pressed along wet clay to create a pattern; cord-marked style o Coil pottery – smooth thick walls, built up in long coils and pressed together with fingers. o Rope or bamboo strips were important in early construction  Cult of Rope – the love and worship of rope  Middle Jomon Period o More decorative; a focus on the surface of the pottery o Rope braids along the top once for functional use, became a part of the decorative aesthetic as well. o Jomon Earthenware Deep Pot  Flamboyant presentation; complex ways of tying the rope for decoration  Each piece became a symbol of labor and more decorative  Symbol of the wealthy  Late Jomon Period: o Bottle, Late Jomon  High fire, evidenced by the denser texture  Geometric design  Less flamboyant cord pattern present o “Dogu” Figurine; “Clay” Figurine  Clay figures; almost contemporary in appearance  Concept of reproduction and the mystery of human birth  Representation of a safe deliver of newborns  Dynamic representations of a rich hunter’s bounty  Avatars for curing diseases and injury, or effigies of people that manifests itself in spiritual magic o Nonakad Stone Group  Creation of the sundial  Indication of a newfound interest in agriculture and the worship of the sun goddess Amaterasu.  Overview o Desire of decoration beyond functional use founded o Ability to apply decorations according to the form of the object to make it visually effective and aesthetically appealing o Use of form to convey certain symbolic meaning o Technique of presentation and representation through the use of forms o Division of labor present, an emergence of the need for an “artist” Yayoi Period (400 BC – 300 AD): (equiv. Alexander the Great and Early Roman Empire) - Chinese recordings of the early Japanese peoples; regarded the Japanese as “immortals” - The Chinese set off on a voyage to Japan to spread Chinese culture and give offerings to the “immortals” - They bring: o Wet-rice cultivation o Bronze-Iron Age (tools + weapons) o Permanently settled communities  Observatories (scouting platforms); large houses; Gates and walls surrounding communities (fortifications) - Helping in the Development of: o Class-society and Clan-nations  Yayoi Pottery o Introduction of the kicking wheel; begins the mass production of potter o Loss of flamboyant decoration in utensils o Pottery no longer considered a symbol of wealth  Now considered a “low” art  Geometric form; symmetrical and simple  “drag and press” technique; introduced with the wheel o Yomanaka Style pottery  Smooth and painted  Heinrich Wolfflin – Renaissance und Barock (1888): Renaissance vs. Baroque style o Linear (Yayoi) vs Painterly (Jomon) o Plan vs Recession o Closed Form vs Open Form o Multiplicity vs Unity o Absolute clarity vs Relative Clarity  Kenzo Tenge – “Tradition and Creation in Japanese Architecture” o Jomon – dynamic, strong emotion, sense of space, mass, and vigor o Yayoi – peace, calm, and geometric order  Representations of how a historic genius and architect reviewed the prehistoric periods in relation of one another.  “High” Art o Dotaku – “Bell-shaped Bronze”  Yayoi bronze ceremonial bells  Pictorial decoration, depicts social life in Yayoi Japan  Geometric form with an ovular bell  Piece-mold casting technique th  Used originally by Chinese as early as 12 century BC  Bell is cast from copper, tin, and lead  Clay model is created, molded, and hardened with a hollow center where melted bronze is poured and left to harden, then the molding is stripped away and the bronze bell pieces welded together  Large maps showing found bell artifacts suggest unified civilizations  Early Yamato Kingdom in construct  The Dotaku were symbols of wealth and power  Bronze artifacts: o North: The Dotaku, a symbol of peace among the civilizations o South: Swords, a symbol of war-time and a potential need to fend off foreign invasion coinciding with a legend  Jimmu Tenno “Emperor Jimmu” (660 BC)  Simpler military power from the West (foreigner)  Conqueror and unifier of Japanese continent  Japanese early history is diluted and mixed with legends Kofun Period – “Ancient Tomb” (250 – 552 AD) - Newly founded unified nation state; an emperor has been established - Formation of government in the south, the Yamato ethnicity o Unification process begins in the west and moves eastward (following the legend of Jimmu Tenno.  Keyhole Shaped Tombs o Protected by modern day government from excavation, these tombs have been deemed “sacred sites”. o Tombs often have two parts, similar to pyramids  Bronze Mirror o Symbolic meaning to the mirror  To lure the sun goddess, Amaterasu, out of a cave, the other gods slipped a mirror inside to radiate her own brilliance back at her. Believing she had been replaced, Amaterasu emerged from the cave and gave the sun back to the world o Divine beings and dragons engraved into bronze o Some sacred objects are influenced by foreign cultures  Glassware  Bean-shaped jewelry, representative of Tiger’s teeth (Korean)  Kaya Gold Crown o Delicate crown discovered at Kyonju, which belonged to a queen o Bean shaped ornaments adorn the crown; a tell of Korean influence  Japan has frequent communication with China and Korea o The Japanese believed the Koreans to be of inferior blood  Emperor Nintoku (16 Emperor); late 4 Century – early 5 centuryh o Tomb erected was a half mile in size, 3 levels in total, and stands as one of the world’s largest tombs  458 acres in total (185 ha)  Haniwa – terra cotta clay figures o Human, animal, and boat figurines placed along the top of the tomb o Horses; indicative of war cavalry o Musicians o Architectural clay models similar to Shinto shrines  X-structure of the architectures roof and bracing was likely adopted from the Chinese. Shinto (Way of the Gods) + Shinto Shrines (Chapter 1 cont.)  Kami – “Gods” o 8 Million gods present in Japanese culture o “Kamikaze” – Japanese suicide pilots; meaning “Divine Wind”  The Kamikaze (a typhoon) was attributed to the failure of the Mongolian invasion along with the fierceness of the Japanese warrior and the superior blacksmithing techniques of the Japanese sword o 90,000 shrines are erected and maintained for the Kami; there are different types  Simple, open style shrine sites  “Shimenawa” – a special plaited rope  “Gohei” – symbolic paper offerings that accompany the Shimenawa  “Toro Kura” – originally used for rice storage; thatch roofing and an uplifted floor  Built around and along open area trees  Bronze tools utilized the cutting of rice stalks, grass, and tree barks for the thatch roofing  Engraved in the Bronze Mirrors are images of the Shinto shrine with uplifted flooring  Sacred, religious connotations  Reflects the sun, and the worship of Amaterasu  Types of Shinto Shrines o “Shimmei” (Shim – God; Mei – Bright); The Shrine at Ise – the most sacred shrine to Amaterasu o Taisha – The Shrine at Izumo o Nagara – The Shrine of Kamo in Kyoto o Kasuga – Kasuga Shrine in Nara o Hachiman – Usa Hachima Shrine, Octa Prefecture o Hie – Hie Shrine at Shiga *Over time and in the development of these shrine styles, it becomes apparent that the Japanese adopt the Chinese’s design of the curving roof and architecture.  Ise Jingo (Ise Shrine) o The architectural style still representative of the Jomon period of architecture o Used in the worship of the Sun Goddess, Amaterasu  The worship of the sun goddess developed with the need for agriculture  Amaterasu was born from her father’s left eye, Izanage; her mother, Izanam, died giving birth to the god of fire.  A shrine, dedicated to Izanage and Izanam, is called the Meoto Iwa, “Husband and Wife Rocks”, where a Shimenawa and Gohei are tied. o The shrine stands in the “neck of the dolphin” of the islands o Naiku “Inner Shrine” is only to be entered by those of high imperial rank  The shrine is layered, certain ranks of social class are allowed deeper into the shrine than those of the common classes.  The Ikebe Gisho is the visit of the emperor to the Ise Jingo. o Shikinen Sengu  Every 20 years, the Ise Shrine is rebuilt in the exact proportions of the original structure as an offering to the sun goddess  There are two lots, directly adjacent to one another, for the rebuilding and destruction of each new and old shrine  A column marks the original placement of the shrine, called the “Heart Pillar”  Sengyo Ceremony  The transfer of artifacts and treasure from the old shrine into the new; “Amaterasu Omikami in the Sengu” *Curved bridges serve as a show of transition from one side of a river to another, symbolic of crossing over into another world or realm.  Izumo Taisha Shrine o “Great Land Master” Okuninushi  God of nation-building, farming, business, and medicine  Commoners are only allowed to stay in the worship hall  Located in the “dolphin’s forehead”, the shrine faces west and is surrounded by mountains on three sides  The mountains provide shelter from winds and keeps it open, on one side, to unfiltered sunshine  Thatch roof structure, with a simple four part layout  Main column – connection between heaven and earth for the gods to travel freely o Torii – “The Tower of Bird”  Marks the boundaries of a shrine and acts as a “gate” to the heavenly realm  Kasuga Taisha Shrine o Kasuga Taisha Lantern walk  Over 3000 lanterns are lit along the pathway to the shrine at night o Later style architecture, the roof has a noticeable curve o Temizu – the ceremonial purification right before an individual has the right to pray  Chozubachi – “ladles” for the purification right; to be hung upside down after use so the water may purify the handle


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