First Set of Notes
First Set of Notes Psyc 3640
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric S McKibben in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
1/8/2016 SMART goals: Specific Measureable Attainable Relevant Time bound (clear start and end point) 1/11/2016 Chapter 1: What is Industrial and Organizational Psychology? Psychology: study of human behavior, feeling, & thoughts How do we think, feel, and behave in the work setting? I-O psychology: the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting Importance of I-O psychology: importance of work in people’s lives Goal of organization is to make money. How does one make money? Through a product or service. How does a product or service come about? From people. O, organizations utilize people in order to turn a profit We spend a third of our day working Our identity is composed of the experiences that we’ve had and the things that we do 4 goals of studying psychology: o To be able to describe people & look for commonalities (categories/classification) which simplifies data o To be able to explain why something happens o To be able to predict behavior o To be able to control (influence/manipulate) a situation Eliminates uncertainty We invest efforts into a task to work towards a positive outcome or to avoid a negative outcome Before you have a prediction, you have uncertainty. When we predict, it removes the ambiguity of a situation. SIOP (division 14 of APA) Society of Industrial-Organizational Psychology Fields of I-O psychology (broadly speaking) o Personnel psychology (describing, explaining, & controlling) o Organizational psychology (describing, explaining, controlling, & explaining) o Human engineering (try to manipulate environment, not person) Goals in the work setting: o Describe: what are the characteristics I want in an employee o Explain: what you want those characteristics for o Predict: who will be able to perform these characteristics best; predict work behaviors of people o Control: by hiring, setting expectations, setting goals, etc. I-O psychologists can guide organizations in measuring their eco- benefits and in promoting these benefits along with individual, team, and organizational performance Humanitarian work psychology: the application of I-O psychology to humanitarian arena, especially poverty reduction and promotion of decent work, aligned with local stakeholders’ needs, and in partnership with global aid/developmental groups 1/13/2016 Evidence-based I-O psychology o I-O psychologists have become increasingly focused on making evidence-based decisions in their work in organizations o This includes using a decision-making process that combines critical thinking with use of best available scientific evidence o I-O psychologists are well positioned to develop and utilize evidence-based practices as they have adopted the scientist- practitioner model to guide the field We have biases in which we think our intuition is the best way to decide something, however, in this class, we are focusing on evidence. How can the jobless be brought back into the workforce? o Create better ways of evaluating the jobless; trying to understand each jobless human in order to place them in a correct job instead of starting everyone at the bottom o Government, organizations, or individual levels—they can take the initiative to try to understand the right fit for the jobless individual o Interactions between these levels (ex. Government provides tax breaks for organizations who take in jobless individuals) o Make the jobless more appealing to employers by education/training How effective are welfare-to-work programs which require work in return for government subsidies? o There will always be people who try to cheat the system & only try to collect the money given to them without outing in any work What can be done to increase the probability of today’s welfare recipient becoming tomorrow’s full-time employee? Does paying welfare recipients less than minimum wage increase or decrease the likelihood of moving from welfare to full-time work? 1/15/2016 The past of I-O psychology o Titles of research articles: The legibility of the telephone directory A test for memory of names and faces The moron as a war problem Mental tests of unemployed men o 1286-1930 Hugo Munterburg, James McKeen Cattell, Walter Dill Scott, & Walter Van Dyke Bingham Studied qualities of people that would make them good in the military or other organizations World War 1: Army Alpha & Army Beta Tests Army alpha test: ability test for those who were literate Army beta test: ability test for those who were illiterate 1917—First Ph.D. in Industrial Psychology awarded to Lillian Gilbreth All about doing things as efficiently as possible Research in time & motion study Human Engineering Intelligence is the best predictor of how people will perform o 1930-1964 Hawthorne studies, Human Relations What manipulations can we make to the environment to improve performance Ex. Amount of light vs productivity Light increase = productivity went up Light decrease = productivity went up o Why? People became more aware Human relations movement Theories of motivation Emotional world of the worker Studies of job satisfaction WWII Civil Rights Act of 1964 & Title VII Law that protects people of color and women Title VII specified demographic groups to be protected from employment discrimination Groups named in 1964: race, color, gender, national origin, religion 2 additional protected groups added later: ADEA (age) 1967, ADA (disability) 1990 Those older than 40 are protected by act about age Women still do not make as much as men, they make 83 cents per dollar a man makes Racism and discrimination has been pushed below the surface; now there is implicit racism & discrimination White males have created walls between those not like them
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