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PowerPoint 1: Organization of the Brain and Behavior

by: Brittany Woody

PowerPoint 1: Organization of the Brain and Behavior PSB4504

Marketplace > University of Florida > PSB4504 > PowerPoint 1 Organization of the Brain and Behavior
Brittany Woody
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Contains all information from the powerpoint, notes from lecture, and information from the readings.
Developmental Psychobiology
Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSB4504 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
PowerPoint 1 Organization of the Brain and Behavior - In the 16th and 17th centuries there was an explosion of theories regarding the basic regional or topographic organization of the CNS after the dual brain account of Aristotle was introduced in classical antiquity (about 340 BC). Two new classes of theory, evolutionary and genomic, were added in the 20th century; the former has had little substantial influence, whereas the latter is maturing. - Segmental models of brain organization: essentially consist of a trunk generating regularly spaced paired nerves, and suprasegmental cerebrum and cerebellum • Haller refined the Vesalian model in the 18th century; he was the first to distinguish between the medulla and pons Meynert published a anatomical analyses based on the Vesalian model in 1872; • first to divide the traditional posterior cerebral ganglion into a dorsal zone (thalamus) and a ventral zone (hypothalamus) • Varolio’s basic model has remained popular today; refined by divisions of the central trunk into a brainstorm part, and generating cranial nerves and a spinal cord part, generating spinal nerves - Developmental models of brain organization: • Baer provided simple, descriptive names for the embryonic brain vesicles first identified by Malpighi; he recognized the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain • Ahlborn proposed that the hindbrain developed adjacent to the notochord and is thus epichordal, whereas the forebrain and midbrain develop rostral to the notochord and are thus prechordal - Evolutionary model of brain organization: • Edinger proposed a distinction between the old brain and new brain; he said the old brain is common to vertebrates and is responsible for all sensory-motor reflexes and instinctive behavior 1 - Genomic model of brain organization: • The ultimate goal of the genomic model is to decipher and understand the genetic program that assembles the neural tube by analyzing spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression through development and establishing their functional significance Central Nervous System Organization: I. Encephalon (brain) A. Prosencephalon (forebrain) 1. Telencephalon (endbrain: limbic system, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex) 2. Diencephalon (interbrain: hypothalamus, thalamus) B. Mesencephalon (midbrain: tectum, tegmentum) C. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) 1. Metencephalon (pons, cerebellum) 2. Myelencephalon (medulla oblongata) II. Medulla Spinalis (spinal cord) - The brain uses hierarchical organization; a hierarchy is ordering along a dimensions or arrangement in a graded series - The central nervous system uses hierarchical sensory processing and motor control - Amphioxus: a primitive vertebrae with a neural tube as a nervous system; it has no eyes and uses photosynthetic skin cells to detect light - Encephalization is the increase in the size of the rostral area of an organism; the amount of brain mass related to an animal’s total body mass - Encephalization Quotient (EQ): the proportion of an organisms head size to its body; believed to reflect intelligence Hierarchical Control by the CNS: - Spinal Cord • basic sensory reception, integration, motor command; withdrawal reflex 2 • central pattern generators are primitive circuits that involve no sensory input; they generate rhythms like swimming, respiration, chewing, and walking; the rhythms created by central pattern generators are modulated by reflex arcs - Brainstem • cranial reflexes (central pattern generators: respiration, mastication) • command systems • primitive responses (orienting, posture, eye movements) • background pattern for more differentiated responses (arousal) • autonomic responses (cranial nerve 10) - Subcortical Forebrain • thalamus: crude discrimination such as light-dark; attention • limbic system: gives rise to specific emotional states; does not involve physiological stress • hypothalamus: responsive to internal chemistry (homeostasis, hormonal regulation); gives commands as result of deviations from homeostasis (water balance, temperature) - Cortex • finest sensory discrimination and motor coordination • highest integrative activity: cognition, curiosity, consciousness - “Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”: the evolutionary history of an organism is repeated in its development - Behavior can also be organized hierarchically; this reflect the order of control over behaviors - Reflexes: predictable, stereotyped responses to specific stimuli • usually localized • involuntary 3 • involve relatively few neurons • graded responses (vary in intensity) • degree of voluntary control over reflex varies (holding your breath) • micturition reflex: controlling urination is well-controlled; pupillary reflex: dilation of pupils are generally not subject to significant voluntary control - Rhythmic Behaviors • basis of rhythmic behaviors are central pattern generators (CPGs) • in brainstem and spinal cord • mechanisms can operate without any sensory input • run a sequence of movements input may be necessary to initiate them • - Kineses: change the rate of movement • simple change in rate of rhythm; may be positive or negative to increase or decrease speed of movement • photokineses: changing rate of movement as a result of change in amount of light; thermokineses: changing rate of movement as a result of change in amount of heat • serve to maximize time in favorable environments and minimize time in unfavorable environments • sometimes mistaken as higher order processes: ants move toward cold, dark, moist places, so they are usually seen in groups; the ants appear to be social animals - Taxes: movement oriented by a stimulus • may result in movement toward or away from stimulus depending on mechanism and type of stimulus; chemotaxis: moving toward a chemical, possibly to find food - klinotaxis: single receptor integrating over time; “temporal summation”; seen in olfactory sense - tropotaxis: paired receptors working simultaneously; “spatial summation”; such as using two ears to decipher which direction a sound is coming from; moths use tropotaxis to keep the amount of light shining on either wing equal so that they remain balanced 4 - telotaxis: orientation toward a goal; not necessarily related to the stimulus strength; such as swimming to shore - Species- typical behaviors (“instinctive”): behaviors universal to a species but that are not necessarily innate; they may involve minimal learning AKA fixed action patterns • • relatively complex behaviors that are common to members of a species • birds make sounds before they learn the adult song; human babies bableing before learning language - Motivated behaviors (“operant”) • “operant”: learned through reward and punishment • if the behavior is not affected by rewards or punishments, it is instinctive • goal directed • elicited by physiologically meaningful stimuli; deviation from homeostasis • signal food, sex, water, threat, etc • terminated by consummatory response: eating, drinking, fight, flee, copulate • appetitive: approach to stimulus (reward); aversive: withdraw from stimulus (punishment) - Latent Learning • observation, modeling, imitation • my performing without reward • by exposure • learn associations between stimuli (stimuli that do not punish or reward) • associated with mirror neurons • exposure: rats learn a maze by exploring - The hierarchical order of behaviors moves from caudal to rostral as they become more complex (reflexes to latent learning); this implies that more encephalized animals have relatively richer repertoires of complex behaviors than do less encephalized animals 5


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