week 1 of Psych 105
week 1 of Psych 105 Psychology 105
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Coster on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 105 at Washington State University taught by Olesya Mikheeva in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introductory in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Lecture 1/11/16 Don’t need online access Communication: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Office: Johnson 203 Mon 12:30-1 2-2:30 Tues/Thurs 12-1 Course Structure: 4 exams o 50 multiple choice o based on class material o review sessions & study guides Final Exam: May 2 3:10-4 (not cumulative) Writing Assignments (4 worth 20 points each) o Posted on blackboard Clicker Points (points added to grade every Friday) o 5pts every week (75 points available) o 6 points needed for 100% NO extra credit for these Research Participation (10%) (No partial credit) o Research papers o Surveys/live experiments o Research summaries DUE BY MONDAY 4/25 o Research participation DUE BY FRIDAY 4/29 BY 5PM Extra credit o DO IT o No no-shows bonus = 3pts o Extra research participation = 3pts/each o Extra research articles = 3pts/each o MAX EXTRA CREDIT = 18PTS How to succeed in this class: Read over advice from last semester’s students Come to class Ask for help Lecture 1/13/16: Chapter 1 Intro History: What is psychology? Scientific study of behavior & mental processes What do psychologists study? Everything Neurons, attentions, sleep, memory, learning, lifespan development, aging, social, motivation, emotions Normal to severely maladaptive Who were/are some Freud (psychoanalysis) o Austrian physician Psychoanalysis: role of unconscious conflicts Watson (behaviorism) o Observable behavior Objectively measured o Pavlov and dogs experiment o Basic principles of learning Rogers (Humanistic Psychology) o Conscious experience What are you experiencing right now o Person-centered o Potential for growth, self-determination, free will Chapter 1: What are the goals for psychology? (Example: Nightmares) Describe: what is a nightmare? Explain: why are you having them? Predict: who is going to have them? When someone is going to have one? Control/Influence behavior and mental processes: How do I stop/induce them? How do we do this? Conduct research using scientific method to gather empirical evidence Scientific Method: 1. Hypothesis: (testable) o Relationship between variables o Variables o Operational definition for variables Ex: attendance: coming to class and being engaged performance: grades? How much you learn? 2. Design Study and Collect Data o Descriptive Observe/describe behavior o Experimental Manipulate variable to cause change 3. Analyze Data and draw conclusions 4. Report Findings 5. Publish Findings Pseudoscience: warning signs Testimonials vs evidence Scientific jargon Combining established scientific knowledge with unfounded claims Irrefutable/nonfalsifiable claims Shifting the burden of proof o “Disprove my claim!” Multiple outs/excuses Research Methods: Descriptive Research Methods Observing and describing behavior Types: o Naturalistic Observation Observe and record behavior in natural settings Problem? Can be unreliable o May act different Use 2+ observers Advantage? Study behaviors that can’t manipulate (ethically) in experiment Lecture 1/15/16 Continued Descriptive Case Studies in depth investigation o spanking = aggressive behavior? o Psychology, medical, school history When to use? o Rare, unusual, extreme conditions Ex: rod to head (Gage) Problem? o Only info from one person/family We can’t guarantee a generalization to the entire population Surveys Questions Advantage? o Huge sample Can’t administer to everyone o Sample o Representative sample (close match to the larger group) How we should go about selecting participants o Random selection – every member has equal chance How selecting participants usually happens o Volunteers Problems? o Honesty (people lie) o Long survey (length) Solutions? o Anonymous surveys o Series of short surveys o Rephrase question (validity question) Ex: “Have you ever been depressed?” VS “How often do you feel depressed?” o Online = more comfortable with honesty Correlational Studies How strongly two variables are related Correlational coefficient = numerical indicator of strength of the relationship between 2 variables o -1.00 thru +1.00 o # = strength o sign (pos/neg) = direction of relationship (direct/inverse relationship) ex: higher attendance + higher grades = positive correlation; higher amount of tv watching + lower grades = negative correlation the closer to -1.00 or +1.00 the stronger the correlation Conclude ex: ice cream sales are strongly correlated with murder o Cause & effect? Correlation does not mean causation Experimental Design Cause and effect: is one variable causing another? Ex: does income level affect depression level? Independent Variable (IV): the factor we manipulate (ex: income) Dependent Variable (DV): outcome variable – factor we measure for change (ex: level of depression) Control for other variables o Extraneous/confounding variables Influence DV (ex: level of depression) Inaccurate results Ex: friends, weather, history, medication, breakup, drug/substance use Control for these/hold constant so the change of DV is attributed to manipulation of IV o The placebo effect Testing a pill for improving memory Experimental group: receives the pill Placebo group: sugar pill Randomly assign to group BOTH groups will be receiving the pill (told they are) Control for placebo effect Expectation or belief in the change Other things to consider Double-blinded study: neither investigator or participant know what group they are in Why is it important? o Bias o Demand characteristics – cues from researchers that hint at the expected response Main effect: change that can be directly attributed to the treatment variable Consider this experiment: Exercise leads to decrease in depression o IV: exercise o DV: depression o Operationally defining: ex: walking/ jogging = exercise; questionnaire = depression o Extraneous: anything that affects depression Writing assignment due in class on 1/29/16 Certificate of completion for plagiarism test 2pg write up
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