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Week 1 Notes

by: Carmen Thomas

Week 1 Notes SPCE 636

Carmen Thomas
GPA 3.77
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About this Document

Notes from chapter 1 of the textbook.
Research in special education
Maria Knox
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carmen Thomas on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPCE 636 at Ball State University taught by Maria Knox in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Research in special education in Special Education at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Week 1: Chapter 1 How we come to know something:   Experience   Thinking   Reasoning­ using logical thinking to reach a solution. Inductive reasoning comes  from generalizations from observations of related events and experiences.  Deductive reasoning is based on conclusions drawn from general observations  and experiences.   Experience, thinking and reasoning all have limitations, but are effective when  used together as factors of the scientific method.  Steps of the scientific method 1. recognize/define problem 2. develop hypothesis 3. collect data 4. analyze data 5. state conclusions Limitations of scientific method 1. Cannot answer all questions 2. Cannot provide full understanding of individuals and/or environments 3. Measurements can have risk of error Applying scientific method in education  Research­ formal systematic application of scientific method to study problems  Educational research­ formal systematic application of scientific method to study  educational problems  Goal of research and educational research­ to describe, explain, predict or  control phenomena   Hard to describe, explain, predict or control human beings. Even describing  observed behaviors is difficult at times because human beings behave differently  if they realize they are being observed  Educational research still uses steps of the scientific method, as listed above  Educational research relies on data  Quantitative research collects and analyzes numerical data to describe, explain,  predict or control  Qualitative research collects and analyzes visual data to understand phenomena. Based on different beliefs and purposes than quantitative research. Avoid stating  hypothesis before collecting data, rather "foreshadow problems". Context is not  controlled/manipulated by researcher. Procedures are less rigid.  Quantitative research tests hypothesis, qualitative does not  Qualitative research can involve simultaneous collection of visual data over  extended period of time in a naturalistic environment.   Quantitative research takes place in environment controlled by researcher,  evaluated in discrete activities.   Qualitative is known as naturalistic research Mixed Methods Research  Combine quantitative and qualitative research in a single study  Purpose­ build on synergy and strength of both research approaches to better  understand phenomena Approaches of Quantitative and Qualitative Research  Identify research topic  Review literature  Select participants  Collect data  Analyze data  Report the research Quantitative research focuses on current conditions and cause­effect phenomena. Survey research   Reports things as they are, involving numerical data to test subject.   Assess preferences, attitudes, practices, concerns or interests of a group of  people rather than a single person.   Typically questionnaires and interviews.   Researchers typically develop their own instruments for measurement.  Correlation Research   Collects data to determine if/what relation exists between qualifiable variables or  values.  Correlation refers to degree of correspondence.   Expressed as correlation coefficient.   Positive number means positive correlation, negative number means negative  correlation.   Correlation does not equal causation.    Causal­Comparative Research  Tries to determine cause/reason for differences between individuals or groups  Grouping variable   Dependent variable  Establish cause and effect relations among groups  Weakness­ researcher has no control because cause has already occurred   Important form of educational research Experimental Research  At least one independent variable is manipulated, others are controlled  Observes effect on one or more dependent variables  Clearly links variables, so strongest of quantitative research  Researchers can select participants and divide them into groups  Researchers can control conditions in research setting Single Subject Research  Used to study individual or group behavior change brought on by intervention or  treatment  One participant Narrative Research  Studies how various people experience the world around them  Focus on single person's life  Develops written account of person's life and experiences  Goal in terms of education­ better understand key issues related to  teaching/learning Ethnographic Research  Studies cultural patterns in natural environment  Studies specific setting and participants within it  Researcher collects data over long stretch of time to gain rapport and deep  understanding of people and setting  Researcher records activities, values and events to identify themes Case Study Research  Qualitative approach, focus on individual Applied Research  Tests a theory to determine use in solving problems  Supports development of theory Evaluation Research  Evaluates program, practice or product  Focuses on making decisions on what is being researched  Formative or summative data Action Research  Conducted by teachers, principals, counselors, etc.  Focuses on how schools operate  Can be quantitative, qualitative or mixed  Provides teachers with resources/ideas for solving problems in classroom Research and Design  Develops effective educational products


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