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Week 1 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Week 1 Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
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These are the notes over the first chapter in our Applying Linguistics textbook as well as the required article for the week. Notes are organized by learning outcomes listed on the first page of th...
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Class Notes
Language as a Social Practice




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Week  1  Notes   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   January  2016     Learning  Outcomes   •   articulate  what  applied  linguistics  mean  and  how  language  functions  as  social  practice.     Readings/References   Pae,  H.  (2010).  Linguistics/Applied  Linguistics.  Handout.     Razfar,  A.,  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Language  as  social  practice.  In  Applying  linguistics  in  the     classroom:  A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.  1-­‐21).  New  York:  Routledge.     Note  Key:   •   Applied  Linguistics  =  AL   •   Linguistics=L   •   Discourse  analysis  =  DA     Article  Notes   What  we  know  about  language   •   Origins  of  AL  dates  back  to  1600  BC  in  Mesopotamia   •   Much  is  still  unknown   •   List  of  known  facts  relevant  to  ALL  languages   o   They  are  complex  and  change  over  time   o   Most  arbitrary  characteristic  of  language:    relationship  between  sounds/gestures   and  their  meaning     o   They  contain  finite  set  of  sounds  and  gestures  governed  by  grammatical  rules   that  form  words  and  sentences   o   All  spoken  languages  contain  set  of  vowels  and  consonants,  structured  sound   segments,  and  grammatical  categories   o   They  contain  different  purposes  for  communication  (questions,  commands,   statements,  etc)   o   Any  normal  child  has  the  ability  to  learn  any  language  due  to  our  innate,  natural   inclination  to  express  ourselves  in  different  manners     What  is  applied  linguistics   •   Definition:  “…using  what  we  know  about  language,  how  it  is  learned,  and  how  it  is  used   in  order  to  achieve  some  purpose  of  solve  some  problem  in  the  real  world”   •   Concerned  with  increasing  understanding  of  the  role  of  language  in  human  life  and   providing  necessary  knowledge  to  make  decisions   •   AL  covers  numerous  areas  (24  listed  in  handout)   o   Analysis  of  discourse  and  interaction   o   Language,  culture,  socialization,  and  pragmatics   o   Reading,  writing,  and  literacy   o   Ideational  and  interpersonal  functioning  in  society   o   Various  forms  of  research  and  studies   •   AL  focuses  on  the  good,  the  bad,  and  the  ugly     o   Regular  discourse  and  interaction   o   Language-­‐related  disorders     •   Holds  belief  that  understanding  language  and  language  breakdowns  lead  to  an   understanding  of  brain  functioning     Chapter  1  Notes   Introduction   •   Elephant  analogy:  If  we  are  blinded  by  our  own  subjective  and  egocentric  perception   and  rely  only  on  our  own  perspective,  we  will  fail  to  see  the  whole  picture  and  hear   others   •   Baseball  analogy:  we  need  to  be  conscious  of  the  language  we  are  using  when  teaching   new  concepts  to  ELLs,  explain  it  in  a  context  they  understand,  and  ensure  that  our  ELLs   are  gaining  a  thorough  understanding  and  not  just  memorizing  simple  concepts     Overview  of  the  history  of  linguistics   •   Behaviorists   o   View  language  as  a  set  of  learning  behaviors  as  a  results  of  rote  memorization,   imitation,  and  rewards/punishments   o   Looked  at  language  by  contrasting  grammatical  forms  and  the  evolution  of   written  text   o   “studied  how  languages  change  and  how  words  relate  to  meaning”   •   Noam  Chomsky   o   Cognitive  approach  to  learning   o   Shifted  focus  away  from  contrasting  languages  and  towards  their  similarities   o   Questions  that  he  asked:  nature  of  language,  what  it  was,  how  it  work,  why   humans  naturally  use  it   o   Held  belief  that  language  has  to  have  an  innate,  biological  predisposition   o   Language  Acquisition  Device  (LAS)   o   Theory  of  Generative  Grammar:  grammar  is  generated  by  the  child’s  brain  in  a   “box”  called  the  LAS   o   “every  child  recreates  or  generates  language  according  to  acquired  rules”   o   held  belief  that  children  learn  to  talk  just  as  easily  as  they  learn  to  walk;  they  do   not  just  repeat  things  like  a  parrot  but  rather  create  their  own  sentences  and   trains  of  thought     Social  turn  and  shift  to  sociocultural  views  of  language   •   language  is  now  a  culturally  embedded  practice  (1960’s-­‐1970’s)   •   Dell  Hymes  coined  as  major  leader  of  this  social  turn  in  L   •   AAVE/Ebonics  came  to  light  during  this  time   •   Studies  began  to  focus  on  the  social  implications  of  varieties  in  language  and  how   language  is  used  as  a  social/cultural  tool  marking  differences  between  classes  and  races   •   Also  began  the  pursuit  of  language  preservation  and  revitalization   o   Sought  to  resurrect  dead  languages  and  to  preserve  dying  ones  so  that  the  study   of  the  study  of  language  contact  and  its  place  in  the  world  was  not  lost  forever   o   Focus  was  on  the  Navajo  language,  Hawaiian,  Hebrew,  and  Gaelic     •   Also  brought  on  the  focus  on  the  symbolic  nature  of  language,  leading  to  the  addition  of   how  humans  make  sense  of  the  world  using  language   •   Provided  numerous  methods  from  many  different  fields  to  focus  on  how  language  is   used  and  how  people  think  about  language   •   Expanded  language  to  include  signs  that  are  dynamic  to  social  and  cultural  practices     7-­‐step  hierarchy  of  language  studies   •   Consists  of  four  levels  of  structure  and  three  levels  of  applied  approaches  focused  on   use/meaning   •   First  four  steps  are  referred  to  as  the  code  of  language  and  are  the  guiding  questions   of  DA   o   Refers  to  sounds,  pronunciation,  words,  morphology,  and  grammar   o   Important  to  note  that  answering  these  questions  of  DA  is  an  approximation   •   1:  what  do  people  say  (phonetics)   o   Definition:  “the  study  of  speech  sounds,”  aka  code   •   2:  how  do  people  say  what  they  say  (phonology)   o   relates  to  performance  and  how  something  is  said     o   definition:  “study  of  how  sounds  are  organized  in  a  language”   o   historically  recognized  as  the  domain  of  AL  and  referred  to  as  performance  from   the  sociolinguist  perspective   o   concerned  with  how  speakers  draw  on  context  clues  to  communicate   §   tone,  intonation,  loudness,  pitch,  rhythm,  gestures,  facial  expressions,  etc   •   3:  what  do  people  mean  (morphology)   o   definition:  “study  of  words  and  word  formation”   o   HUGE  argument  centered  on  whether  meaning  is  fixed  or  interpretive   o   Semiotics:  meaning  is  situated  and  dependent  upon  context   §   IRE:  initiation,  response,  evaluation;  typical  student-­‐teacher  interaction   §   Process  of  learning  is  thought  to  be  semiotic  (Halliday,  1993)   §   Language  becomes  clear  through  use,  meaning,  and  semiotic  activity   o   Listeners  use  intersubjectivity,  drawing  on  multiple  signs  and  symbols,  to  form   meaning   •   4:  how  do  values,  beliefs,  and  social  and  institutional  relations  of  power  meditate   meaning  (syntax)   o   definition:  “the  study  of  the  rules  that  govern  sentence  formation  in  a  language”   o   focuses  on  the  cultural  and  historical  issues  underlying  meaning  and  ideologies   o    “every  act  of  meaning,  usage,  discourse,  and  interpretation  viewed  through   prism  of  values,  beliefs,  social,  and  institutional  relations  of  power”   o   this  is  the  central  question  when  it  comes  to  understanding  how  some  practices   are  more  valued  than  others   o   referred  to  as  the  ideological  model  of  literacy  (Street,  2003):  views  meaning  as   fundamentally  context-­‐driven  and  grounded  in  the  values  of  language  users   •   5:  (semantics)   •   6:  (pragmatics)   •   7:  (language  ideologies)     4  guiding  questions  of  discourse  analysis   •   teacher  as  an  ethnographer:  powerful  metaphor  that  brings  together  the  aims  of  DA   and  the  teacher  in  the  classroom   •   powerful  tool  for  understanding  learning  practices  as  situated  local  cultural  contexts  and   symbol  systems   •   notion  of  DA  affords  a  more  holistic  view  of  meaning     Applying  discourse  analysis   •   helps  us  form  discursive  identities  (i.e.  student,  teacher)  that  we  display  through   language  use   •   shift  in  identity  is  one  of  the  most  powerful  ways  that  teachers  can  assess  learning  as  a   sociocultural  phenomenon   •   brings  field  of  L  to  a  practical  and  engaging  place  where  we  can  begin  to  understand   language  and  its  use  in  context     Connection  of  discourse  analysis  to  learning   •   not  all  discourses  are  equivalent  in  terms  of  process  and  purpose   •   discourse  can  range  from  understanding  mathematics  to  learning  how  to  cook  or  play   video  games   •   discourse:  material  and  ideational  tools  that  humans  draw  on   •   5  issues  to  consider  when  connecting  sociocultural  views  of  learning  with  DA   o   all  learning  and  meaning  occurs  in  the  context  of  organized  activities  with  certain   goals   o   all  learning  is  mediated  through  the  use  of  signs  and  symbols,  with  language   being  the  most  important  tool   o   learning  can  be  best  understood  as  movement  through  ZPD   §   moving  through  ZPD  makes  learners  less  dependent  on  actions,  objects,   and  context  to  form  meaning  and  enables  them  to  think  abstractly   (Vygotsky)   o    learners  move  from  situated  discourses  to  literate  discourses   o   consider  hoe  discourses  are  reorganized  in  new  contexts   •   Vygotsky   o   All  learning  proceeds  from  interpersonal  to  intrapersonal  plan  through   mediation   §   Active  use  of  symbolic  and  visual  artifacts   §   Leads  to  development  of  ability  to  regulate  meaning  without  relying  on   presence  of  objects  and  actions  (appropriated  the  discourse)   o   One  of  the  primary  measures  of  development  are  shifts  in  action   •   Teachers  are  needed  to  aid  in  shift  of  discourses  in  our  students   •   The  MASS  System  (Gee)   o   Integrate  key  elements  of  DA  and  sociocultural  theories  of  learning  and   development   o   4  components:   §   material:  who  and  what   §   activity:  what’s  happening  and  how  is  it  organized   §   semiotic:  what  are  they  using  to  communicate?   §   Sociocultural:  what  are  participants  thinking,  feeling,  and  being?   o   occurs  through  situated  types  of  meaning  and/or  through  more  abstract  cultural   models       Shifts  in  discursive  identities  and  primary  to  secondary  discourses   •   Primary:  “those  to  which  people  are  apprenticed  early  in  life  during  their  primary   socialization  as  members  of  particular  families  within  their  sociocultural  setting”   •   Secondary:  “those  to  which  people  are  apprenticed  as  part  of  their  socialization  within   various  local,  state,  and  national  groups  and  institutions  outside  early  peer  group   socialization”   o   More  explicitly  taught   o   Less  dependent  on  immediate  situation  for  access  by  a  larger  audience   o   Best  developed  in  relation  to  primary  discourses   o   Have  cross-­‐situational  applicability  due  to  greater  level  of  abstraction   •   Primary  and  secondary  discourses  are  not  always  separate  and  unrelated   •   The  appropriation  of  P  and  S  discourses  lead  to  shifts  in  discursive  identities    


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