Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Huxman at UA
Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Huxman at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Posted on web 22807 at 530 pm Plant Diversity Ecol 182 312007 quotO Summary from last time We talked about The Tracheophytes A leaf is a attened photosynthetic structure emerging laterally from a main aXis or stem and possessing true vascular tissue Two leaf types microphylls and rnegaphylls The microphyll has a single vascular strand that has departed from the stern Without disturbing the stern s vascular structure Club mosses have microphylls Microphylls may have evolved from sterile sporangia a Vascular tissue Sp0rangium Sporan gia Mlcrophy The Tracheophytes The megaphyll is larger and more complex found in ferns and seed plants May have arose from attening of stems and development of overtopping Overtopping Megaphyll Introducing the Tracheophytes Plants that bear a single type of spore are said to be homosporous The most ancient tracheophytes were all homosporous Both the gametophyte and the sporophyte are independent and usually photosynthetic A single type of gametophyte bears both female and male reproductive organs Introducing the Tracheophytes Plants with two distinct types of spores evolved later and are said to be heterosporous n Homospory Archegonium 9 Gamatophytc IL II Antheddium d Spove11 390 E Spatmm ggs H HAPLOID I J DIPLOID 2quot Spore mother cell Zn zygote 2 2 H er s 039 c o P y MegagametophyteQ Sporangium 271 Embryo 2quot S l l poggfye chmgamgffphytew mmiima umanvwmimmuruuvrnuNWym mm WWW w m x m Megaspore n Microspore n sperm 1 Eggs 390 HAPLOID I t DH LOIDZn Spore mother Spare mother ZYEOMQ cell 211 cell 2 Mcgasparangium Wdospomngium Embryo 2n 2quot 211 Sporophyke 2H Urswssarm earlmmansnwmsmbmmwnum my MM m The Surviving Nonseed Trachecphytes The club mosses phylum Lycophyta have rnicrophylls exhibit apical growth and have roots that branch dichotomously Sporangia in many Lycophyta are contained Within structures called strobili clusters of sporebearing leaves Figure 2915 Club Masses Strobilus Microsporangium a Lycopodium obscm um 7 LIFE THE SCIENCE 0F BIDLDGY Seventh Editian gure 2915 Club Masses 2004 Smauer Assumes m and w H Freeman A Co The Surviving Nonseed Tracheophytes The horsetails Whisk ferns and ferns form a clade the phylum Pteridophyta The leaves are reduced megaphylls and grow in whorls Stern growth is from the base of the stern segments Figure 2916 Horsetails Leaves Sporan gium Sporangiophore Fertile shoot a Equisetum m vense l7 Equisetum pnlustre LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seventh Edition Figure 2916 Horsatails 2004 smauer Assocrmes vm am w H Freeman 5 Ca The Surviving Nonseed Tracheophytes The sporophytes of the ferns typically have true roots stems and leaves The ferns rst appeared during the Devonian Ferns are characterized by fronds large leaves with complex vasculature Sporangia are found on the undersurfaces of the fronds clustered in groups called sori Figure 2919 Fern Sori Are Clusters of Sporangia Dryopteris intermedia LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Ssvenlh Edition Figure 2919 Fem Sori Ave Clusters oi Spornngia pm 2004 Smauer Assocwmeg m and w H Freeman 5 Ca Mature gametophyte A Rhizoids 39 Germinating spore Antheridium HAPLOID n Mature DIPLOID 2n sporophyte Archegonial wall Sporophyte Root Horizontal stem LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Suanlh Edition Figure 2920 The Life Cycle 01 a Fem 2004 5mm Assncmes me and w H Freeman 1 Ca Nontracheophytes 39 39 39 Z 0 common Club mosses W a ancestor g E 9 Horsetalls g b g Tracheids 0 branching Whisk ferns 1 8 H independent K3 7 3 m klt n sporophyte f d r Iquot l m g quotS Multi agellate n E sperm complex 7 lt 8 leaves k a g Comfers E o m 0 m 9 Seeds R 3 H a a m 839 o Gnetophytes Flowers carpels triploid endosperm Angiosperms LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Savant Edition Figure 2WThe Evolulinn o1 Tnday39s Flams 2qu Smauer Assocmes me am w H Freeman 5 Co The Seed Plants N crospores and megasporis Conifers Common ancestor Seeds Gnetophytes 0 Flowers Angiosperms Seed plants are the most derived tracheophytes 0 Big evolutionary innovations Y sunadsouumg j Sporophyte 2n g Sp0mphyle 2n Camctophyke n Camemphyle n Female Male gametophyte n gametophytes n mezscvmctnrmowax wmminimum mmhvhw nSMWMammnWmE An ther Ovary 39754 1 Sporophyte 2n useMEme anrmonv mm mm nwmm munm mm SwampMIInu Gmunp il gt1 cmsmw mm m M The Seed Plants The seed plants are heterosporous Separate megasporangia and microsporangia Megaspores produce a single haploid multicellular female gametophyte in megasporangia Microspores meiotically divide to produce pollen grains in microsporangia Fertilization occurs through pollen tube elongation to the female gametophyte which release two sperm Resulting zygote divides until an embryonic stage is reached when growth is halted producing a seed The Seed Plants A seed may contain tissues from three generations The possession of seeds is a major reason for the enormous evolutionary success of seed plants The Gymnosperms Naked Seeds The gymnosperms do not produce owers and their ovules and seeds are not protected by ower or fruit tissue There are four clades of living gymnosperms today The Gymnosperms Naked Seeds Fir cedar spruce and pine all belong to Pinophyta 7 Megaspores are 7 Microspores are lb Fm paudl39msn I nllrn slmbih Seed cone Scalle Megasporangium irer 9 Pollen chamber Seed coat I 5 Female gametophyw Embryo Female gametophyte Developing I embryos LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seventh Edition Flguve me The L e Cycle al a Pine Tree 1 2004 S nauev Asswmes w and w H Freeman 5 CD The Gymnosperms Naked Seeds Gymnosperrns exhibit secondary growth Recall types of types of growth animals versus plants Determinate Indeterminate Meristematic regions are localized regions of cell division They produce new cells inde nitely Two meristem types Apical meristems Lateral meristems Leaf primordial Lateral bud primordia Cork cambium Vascular cambium Root apical meristem Root hairs Root apical meristern Root cap 50 um LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLDLWv Seventh Edi an Figure 311 Apical Ind Lalaul Mariuema lt9 200a Smauer Assucrmes w and w H Freeman 3 Cu Root hairs Zone of cell maturation Primary meristems Protoderm Zone of cell elongation Ground meristem Zone of cell division cHsLiTT Root cap Quiescent center LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY 55mm Ediliori Figuia 3515 Tissues Ind Region a ma Ram Tip 2004 Smauar Assncrznes me am w H Freeman E Co Forming the Plant Body Secondary tissues derive from two lateral meristems vascular and cork cambium Vascular cambium Cork cambium Growth in the diameter of the stems and roots produced by these meristematic regions is called Wood is Bark is Terminal bud Thjs Bud scale yearS Vascular growth ll i Gamblum Primary growth Prlmary xylem Cork I Perlderm Secondary Prlmary Cork cambium xylem Cortex Primary Last year s Phloem growth J r r 1 Secondary IIlquotquot39Hl4 phloem Secondary growth Vascular Scars left by bud Cambium Growth scales from from two previous year Years ago Lateral bud Leaf scar LIFE THE SCIENCE DFBoLoBY Seventh Edition Figure 3514 A Waody Twig a 2mm Smauer Asswaias inc and w H Freeman amp Co Outer margin New secondary of primary phloem cell xylem Next new secondary secondary Next new xylem cell secondary xylem cell LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seventh Edilian gure 3515 Vuculur Camhhnn Thickaus Siam Ind Raul Pm 2 a 2004 Smauat Assocwama mo and w H Freeman 5 Co Tracheids Sieve cell Gymnosperms Naked Seeds 0 Gymnosperms except Gnetophyta have only tracheids and simple phloem Tracheids are Phloem are LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seventh Edition Figure 351 Eu Tracheids Pores of sieve plate 39 Sieve plate a Sieve tube element The Angiosperms Flowering Plants Phylum Angiospermae The angiosperms are the most derived form of the tracheophytes The Angiosperms Flowering Plants A number of synapomorphies or shared derived traits characterize the angiosperrns They have They produce Their ovules and seeds are They have They produce Their xylem contains Their phloem contains The Angiosperms Flowering Plants Double fertilization two male gametes participate in fertilization events Within the megagametophyte Endosperm nucleus Microspores a DIPLOID HAI LOID Mega Antipodal gimteto C6115 Pollen grain P y e Surviving megaspore f nude LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seven Edition Figure 3011 The Life Cycle of an Angiospeml a 2004 Smauer Assnmales me and w H Freeman 1 Cu The Angiosperms Flowering Plants Petal All the parts of a ower are modified leaves Stamens lament bearing anthers containing pollen producing microsporangia Pistil one or more carpels with a swollen base ovary containing megasporangia Style is the apical stalk of the pistil terminal surface receiving pollen is called the stigma Stigma 4 Anther Style quot Ovary I Ovule Filament Receptacle The Angiosperms Flowering Plants Specialized leaves petals and sepals are Evolutionarin ancient angiosperms have a large and variable number of oral structures petals sepals carpels and stamens Evolutionary trend Within the group Figure 308 In orescences Umbels Disk owers Ray owers a Daucus carom l7 Echimzcea purpztrea Compound umbel g C Permisetum setaceum LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Seven Editian Figuve ma Inllomcences 2304 Smauer Assumes Inc and w H Freeman 5 Co The Angiosperms Flowering Plants Perfect owers have both Imperfect owers Monoecious species produce In dioecious species Developing embryos consists of an embryonic axis and one or two cotyledons seed leaves which Monocots Eudicots Arrangement of primary vascular Cotyledons bundles in stem Veins in leaves Flower parts LIFE THE SEIENEE DF BIDLDGY Seventh Edilicn gure 351 Mnnacols velsu Eudicots 2cm Smauer Assnmmea me am w H Freeman 5 Co Internode Leaf 39 Petiole Blade LIFE THESEIENL E 0F BIOLOGY Salan Edition gure 352 Vegetative Organs Ind System 2004 Sinausv Associates Inc and w H Freeman 5 Co Organs of the Angiosperrns Two main types of root system Many eudicots have a Monocots and some eudicots have a Some plants have adventitious roots which arise from points along the stem Where roots would not usually occur Figure 353 Root Systems LIFE THE SCIENCE or BIDLOGV SalEn Ediriun Figure 15 Ram Sysxems 2004 Smauer Assacrzues me and w H Freeman 5 Ca Angiosperm vascular systems Xylem in angiosperms consists of vessel elements in addition to tracheids Vessel elements also Vessel elements are generally Sieve tube elements Phloem in Angiosperms are stacked similar to xylem Have adjacent companion cells that Companion cells may regulate the performance of the sieve tube members through their effects on active transport of solutes Figure 359 Plant Cell Types Part 3 e j7 Tracheids Vessel elements 50 pm Why is a greater diameter a big deal for the evolution of plants L1 Xylem b Phloem Vessel elements Tracheids Sieve cell Sieve tube element Companion cell LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Savenlh Edi an Figum 31m Evolution of me Cnnducling Calls MVascLIIM Sysxems 2004 Smauer Assacrates me and w H Freeman E Co Pores of sieve plate Sieve plate Sieve tube element Companion cell Sieve tube element Angiosperms Flowering Plants Monocots a single embryonic co ledon rasses cattails Carpels riploid g endosperm seeds Amborella hhes orchids and palms in fruit Gymnospermlike I Eudicots two cotyledons and ancestor include the majority of familiar seed plants Vessel elements Water lilies Star anise Additional clades water lilies star anise and the magnoliid Magnoliids complex exams any 39 Big question in plant evolution oty e on What is the basal angiosperm Pollen with th e s EUdimtS grooves LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGYV Sewnm Edlflnn Figure 30 Evalulinnm Relationships among 12 Anglosprmls 5 EC Enauenlssx mas ln and W H Franzquot 5 C0
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