Psychology 105 Section 5 First Week of Notes
Psychology 105 Section 5 First Week of Notes PSYCH 105
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Jones on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 105 at Washington State University taught by Olesya Mikheeva in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
January 11, 2016 Psych 105 Section 5 Olesya Mikheeva (OH-LEE-SHAH) Mikheeva01@wsu.edu Office Hours: Mon. 12:30-1 2-2:30 Wed. 11-1 Fri. 2-2:30 Appointments always welcome Exams: 67% Writing Assignments: 13% Research: 10% Clicker points: 10% 4 Exams, 50 multiple choice questions based on class/lecture, not comprehensive Final: Monday 5/2 3-4 PM Make-up exams: -notify in advance via email -short answer instead of multiple choice 4 writing assignments, 20 points each -assignments posted on blackboard now -due in class, hard copy format Clicker points: -grades posted every Friday -5 points/week (75 total for semester) -60 points needed for 100% in class (equivalent to 4/5 points a week) -no extra credit/make-up opportunities Research Participation: 60 points -3 hours of research participation = 3 research credits -can’t all be online surveys, must do at least one live/in-person experiment -no partial credit, all 3 hours or nothing -sign up for participation on blackboard, assign the participation to whatever class you decide -DUE Fri. 4/29 5 PM OR you can complete… Research Papers: -3 research papers = 1 research credit each -DUE Mon. 4/25 beginning of class OR you can do a combo or participation + papers How to succeed: -read past student advice -come to class -ask for help -Do extra credit -no no-shows (show up to all participation) = 3 points (easy points) -extra hour of research participation = 3 points -extra research paper = 3 points/each -total max: 18 points January 13, 2016 Psych 105 Section 5 Psychology- the scientific study of behavior and mental processes -Psychologists study everything such as neurons, attention, sleep, memory, aging, learning, motives, etc. Important People: (will cover more deeply later on) 1.Freud - Australian psychologist - came up with psychoanalysis (role of unconscious conflicts) Think of the patient laying on the couch ranting as person with clipboard listens 2. Watson - studied behaviorism - Pavlov and his dogs experiment - basic principles of learning How do we acquire/change/lose certain behaviors 3. Rogers - humanistic psychology (the conscious experience/your thoughts in the moment) Opposite of Freud’s ideas - person centered Client is the expert rather than the doctor - focused on potential, self-growth, free will/choice Everyone has a purpose Intro and Research Methods Goals of Psychology: using the example of nightmares 1) Describe what’s happening (what is a nightmare) 2) Explain what’s going on (why you have/keep having/stop having nightmares) 3) Predict (who has nightmares, when do they happen) 4) Control or Influence (how do I control your nightmares, induce or stop them) Scientific Method: Step 1: Form a testable hypothesis Hypothesis- a relationship between variables - Ex. Success in relation to attendance - Operational Definitions (define “attendance,” are you paying attention) Step 2: Design study and collect data Descriptive- observe/describe behavior Experimental- manipulate variable to cause change Step 3: Analyze data and draw conclusions Step 4: Report findings Step 5: Publish findings Pseudoscience (“not real science”) How to tell that it’s pseudoscience: 1) testimonials vs. evidence 2) scientific jargon (saying big words to make it sound more scientific) 3) combining scientific knowledge with unfounded claims (making inferences) 4) inferable or nonfalsifiable claims (claims hard to argue with) 5) shifting burden of proof (“if you don’t believe me, try it yourself”) 6) multiple outs (make a lot of excuses/changing the story) Types of Descriptive Methods: - Naturalistic observation what’s happening in the natural setting Cons: can be unreliable because being observed may alter natural behaviors Advantages: natural behaviors may not show up in a real experiment Use 2+ observers for more success January 15, 2016 Psych 105 Section 5 DUE: writing assignment 1 on 1/29, need to print certification for plagerism Case Studies - In depth investigation o Trying to get as many details as possible about their life (psychological, medical, school history) - Used in rare, unusual, extreme conditions (such as brain injuries) - Problems o You’re only gathering information from one individual so their results/your findings most likely will not relate to other individuals with or without their condition Surveys - One of the most largely used methods - Advantages o Get a large sample - Problems o Only administered to a sample of the population Representative sample – closely matches the larger population Random selection – every member of the population has equal chance o Honesty; people lie on surveys, especially seen on personal/sensitive topics o Long surveys; people skip through to save time - Solutions to the problems o Make surveys anonymous, makes people more open to honesty o Series of shorter surveys rather than one long one o Validity questions/rephrasing the questions; asking the question 2 different times to see if they respond the same o Online surveys make people feel more comfortable with taking their time as well as being honest Correlational Studies - How strongly 2 variables are related - Results in a number o Numerical indicator of the strength of the relationship o Negative 1 to positive 1 Zero means there is no relation The closer the resulted number is to +1 or -1, the stronger the relationship is - Correlation does not mean causation; just because the variables are related doesn’t necessarily mean they have a cause and effect relationship Experimental Method - Used to demonstrate cause and effect relationship between variables - Independent variable (IV) – the variable we manipulate/change - Dependent variable (DV) – outcome variable - Extraneous/confounding variables – influence DV, makes inaccurate results o Ex. Weather, exercise, eating, sleep habits, etc. o Control the variables to avoid inaccurate results The Placebo Effect - Change attributed to belief/expectation - An experimental group (gets actual pill/product to be tested) and a placebo group (gets a knockoff/fake) - Participants are randomly assigned to a group Double Blinded Study - Participant and doctor/mediator don’t know what the participant is taking o Mediator can’t look for the result that they want Demand characteristics – any cues from the mediator that hint at their expectation o Change is directly attributed to independent variable