Class Note for ECOL 487L at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
8272009 Levels of Analysis Quiz see course web site 1 Hummingbirds passes a red phntureceptur that alluws theru tn eliscriruinate rad newers frnm mange miss 2 Whm rsaral under crnwelal cunelitjnns lauruings are ruure likely tn engage in dispersal hduvinr than whenrmrad alune 3 Male flea with large antlers tmd tn win ruure cnntests secure ruure ruatjngs and thus sire ruure n spring than ruales with sruall antlers 4 Buttu39 ies harn tn awiel a spot whae they havehem caught in a net and released 5 Cavedwelling ash and cray sh are n m blind suggesting that hiss of eye runctiun in me animals hasarisen indepmdmtly a mlth n times 5 The ash nrlight that ashlight sh39 gmerate inwlves prm lll jnn by syruhintic bacteria u an mzyme knuwn as lucinxase Learning and Instinct Historical Background Shakespeare on Instincts I39ll never be such a gosling to obey instinct but stand as if a man were author of himself and knew no other kinquot Commas ca 1608 Descartes and Free Will Descarte in 160039s animal39s behavior governed solely by the laws of physics whereas human beings had a soul which was thought to reside in the pineal gland Humans unlike animals had free will Cartesians created a dichotomyquot humans as reasoning beings vs animals as automata dichotomy twopart classification The learning instinct dichotomy Once known that animals could learn new dichotomy arose learning vs instinct Lamarck on Instincts By instinct is meant the xed tendencies displayed by animals in their actions and many people have held that these tendencies are the produce of a reasoned choice and therefore the fruit of experience 8272009 EVOlll onkY U52 and Will bodybuilding cause one s children D39suse to be more muscular from birth the continued use of any organ leads to its development strengthens it and even enlarges it While permanent disuse or any organ is injurious to its development causes it to deteriorate and ultimately disappear if the disuse continues for a long period through successive generations JB de L am aner I ll asapllie Zaalagiq us 13 09 Problem with Lamarck39s Theory CharIes Darwin 18094882 0 Required effects of environment on non reproductive tissue be transmitted to DNA in gametes ltgt Dropped out of medical school 0 Studied theology at Cambridge 0 Held lifelong interest 0 Refuted by August in nature Weismann in early 190039s Charles Darwin39s Orly of Species 39 IL lllillil 0iquot MTV quotmanquot Published in November 24 1859 Evolution through a process of natural selection 18311836 Naturalist aboard the HM Beagle term evolution never appeared in The Origin of Species 8272009 Hypothetical Example Natural selection on beetle color pattern 1 Indvithal beetles vary in color pattern 2 Variation in color pattern is partly geneticallybased 3 Some color pattern genotypes reproduce more than others 4 Bird predation is the agent of selection on color pattern Color pattern has evolved under natural selection Some beetles can change their color in a minute or so This is NOT evolution E This is called phenotypic plasticity Darwin39s principle of antithesis Darwin observed that instincts could often be grouped as pairs of opposites Aggresslve posmre Submlsslve posmre 8272009 Instincts and Charles Darwin39s theory of natural selection mr roww vr vw mum i w m mu But Darwin waffled Darwin39s theory of pangenesis acquired traits sometimes transmitted viagemmules cells shed by somatic cells behavior learned in one generation could be expressed instinctively in the next George Romanes 188039s disciple of Darwin Primary instincts arose through natural selection Secondary instincts were derived from learned behavior through 39lapsing intelligence Rumores esfabI39shed mnd corfIILLm Definition of the term instinct is difficult I will not attempt any de nition of instinct but every one understands what is meant when it is said that instinct impels the cuckoo to migrate and to lay her eggs in other birds39 nests C Darwin 0n the Origlh ofSpecies Cuckoo is a breed parasite Characteristics of Instincts 39 fixed 39 stereotyped 39 triggered by releasers Instincts are fixed Chameleon39s prey strike behavior is always the same Instincts sometimes referred to as fixed action patterns 8272009 Instincts are stereotyped Sequence of alcroalyned xed acnnn panama in nunm mm mummy bIhavinur as A x e l quotam snake quotGmnx umlnk likenknquot Instinctive behavior is speciestypical varying greatly befween species but little wfhna species Instincts are triggered by releasers Releasers are stimuli that elicit behavior Releasers represent a small subset of available stimuli Exam ple In stickleback fish a red belly acts to release territorial behavior by males w cumcumin Shape doesn t matter quotmum 2113 Ansell Releasers of Human Instincts what makes babies smie yes veal of course vesi KN El a 9 Conclusion A pair of eyes releases a babies smile Instincts frequently run to completion even in the absence of releaser 39 Example Eggrolling in greylag geese work by Konrad Lorenz Eggrolli ng sequence Goose continues to roll39 egg into nest even though egg has been taken away by Lorenz Remembers w are it stored seeds gta d Learns to use tools Learns colors of flowers 8272009 Characteristics of Learning Repeatable change in behavior with experience Change is gradual Change wanes with behavior Change usually ben experience Landmark learning in digger wasps Digger wasp females bring food repeatedly to burrow where young are developing Niko Tinbergen showed that females learned to use local landmarks to find nest entrance Two Problems with the Learning Instinct Dichotomy 1 instincts may be partly learned 2 learning is often innately biased Example Food begging behavior in herring gulls Problem 1 Instincts may be learned Chicks beg for food by pecking at mother39s bill Mother then regurgitates a meal Tinbergen analyzed releasers for begging behavior by chicks Tinbergen made models of mother bird and waved them in front of chicks A yellow bill with a red spot was sufficient to release food begging behavior Jack Hailman extended Tinbergen39s experiments with laughing gulls Releasers of food begging changed as chicks matured quot i ll 573 a At first maximal But later maximal response to model of response required orange bill more complete model 8272009 Conclusion What was thought to be an instinct39 was at least partly learned WH l organize feeding behavior in this way Problem 2 Learning can be biased Example Avoidance learning in rodents Rats learn to avoid taste associated with an illness This is called food aversion learning Rats also learn to avoid sounds associated with electric shock But rat cannot learn soundnausea and tasteshock Butterfly Egg Laying Behavior is a Mixture of Learning di Instinct Female pipevine swallowtail butterflies Baffusp ienor lay eggs on host plants39 in the genus Arisfoocilia How does 3 phYenorfind and identify its host plants 8272009 Once on host plant egg ieying elicited by phytochemical releasers This part is instinctive But finding host plant ig both instinctive and leurne We made artificial host plants as follows Paper training model model We then trained a female tow of four colored models Gaye l Lendings tallied by color too 20 Mean an Landingsim Training Culnr w 20 o 7 Red Yeiigw seen Em Eggrhying Tnining Culnr Butterflies perform well on all colors Best on green Are they prepared to learn green or do theyjust respond innutely to green 8272009 quotnufTuhl Visits to Nuannined Culnxs a ydlww gm hlu Eggrhying Tnining Culnr PaH er n of misfakes suggesfs Hlaf females respond insfincfively To green Why have innete green bias but be able to learn other colors In southern Arizona it39s obvious Host comes in different colors Green is rnost common color of host across the butterfhs range But it pays to learn red
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