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Microbiology 4000 notes from week of 1/13/16

by: Noelle Millan

Microbiology 4000 notes from week of 1/13/16 MICRBIO 4000

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Biology > MICRBIO 4000 > Microbiology 4000 notes from week of 1 13 16
Noelle Millan

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Includes slides she skips in lecture
Basic and Practical Microbiology
Dr. Madhura Pradhan
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noelle Millan on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MICRBIO 4000 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Madhura Pradhan in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Basic and Practical Microbiology in Biology at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
1/13­1/15 HUMANS AND THE MICROBIAL WORLD Chapter 1 Learning Objectives: 1. History of Microbiology            2. Positive and Negative Effects of Microbes            3. Understand the term “microorganism” HISTORY Hooke: coined the term “cell”—reported that living things are composed of cells in 1665 Cell theory: all living things are made of cells, which came from preexisting cells Leeuwenhoek: first to observe microorganisms under a microscope (which is < 1 millionth of a  meter) **debate of spontaneous generation (SG) arose, but was eventually rejected over 200 years later ­hypothesis that living organisms arose from nonliving matter Biogenesis: hypothesis that living organisms arise from preexisting life Needham: showed that boiled broth still produced microorganisms in 1749 Spallanzani: contradicted Needham’s findings ­boiled the broths longer; sealed flask necks by melting them ­found NO microorganism growth in broths UNLESS the flask necks cracked **these findings, however, didn’t solve the debate over SG b/c some thought heating the broths     destroyed “vital force” necessary for SG Pasteur: showed that microorganisms were present in the air in 1861 ­microbial growth occurred in boiled broth that was EXPOSED TO AIR ­supports biogenesis **some people argued that no microorganisms came from the closed flask because the air had     some “vital force” necessary for growth Pasteur’s Experiment: 1. Sterilized broth—air escaped through Swan­necked flasks that trapped       the microbes in the neck  2. Cooled broth, allowing air to enter flasks (broths cooled for YEARS)  3. Broth stayed sterile even though air entered b/c the air was sterile  4. ONLY time microorganisms formed was when the broth came in      contact with the microbes in the neck of the flask **this experiment ended arguments that unheated air/broths contained “vital force” necessary      for SG **Pasteur’s results were never fully reproducible Tyndall: explained conflicting data for Pasteur’s experiments ­proved Pasteur correct by realizing that different broths required different   Sterilization times ­some broths sterilized in 5 minutes, while others took hours 1/13­1/15   ­WHY?  Different broths were used (Pasteur: sugar/yeast broths, others: hay  broths that contained heat­resistant endospores) Cohn: discovered endospores in 1876 Scientific Method 1. Observe 2. Hypothesis 3. Experiments 4. Perform & analyze 5. Conclude 6. Communicate results Theory: explanation supported by large amounts of evidence H­pylori: bacteria that causes gastric ulcers **NOT because of spicy/acidic foods, although they irritate ulcers GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY (1875­1918) ­occurred after SG was disproved ­most pathogenic bacteria identified during this time period ­work on viruses began ­understanding that microscopic agents could cause diseases lead to control effects Germ theory of disease: realization that microorganisms cause diseases *antibiotics were used to prevent and treat these diseases ­fermentation and Pasteurization came into practice Lister: used chemical disinfectant (phenol) to prevent surgical wound infections Koch: proved bacterium causes anthrax and proved experimental steps (Koch’s Postulates)            to prove certain microbes cause specific diseases Jenner: gave a human cowpox virus, who was then immune to smallpox **gave the introduction to the practice of VACCINATION Concept of Pasteurization: prevent the growth of disease­causing microbes while keeping safe        ones A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE ­we can’t survive without microbes ­benefits: nitrogen fixation, oxygen production… ­negatives: microbes have killed more people than war *they’ve been used as weapons in bioterrorism Applications 1.   Food production *fermentation~ dairy, alcohol (fungi, bacteria) 1/13­1/15       2.   Biodegradation *degrades DDT, trichloroethylene, clean oil spills *bioremediation: microorganisms enhance decay of pollutants (oil spills) (Applications, cont’d)  3. Synthesis of commercially valuable products *hydroxybutiric acid (disposable diapers/plastics) *ethanol (biofuel) *insect toxins (insecticides) *antibiotics (original source: microorganisms/fungi in soil) 4. Biotechnology *microbial/biochemical techniques that solve practical problems ­gene therapy: defective gene is removed and replaced w/ healthy one 5. Genetic engineering *introduction of genes into another organism *production of medicines (insulins, growth hormones) * “genetically modified organisms” Problem with bioremediation: microorganisms can grow out of control and threaten ecosystems        *why it wasn’t used in BP oil spill Method used to protect organic crops: bacteria that isn’t digestible to bugs, but is fine to human               animal digestive systems is used …Antibiotics ARE bacteria—doesn’t that defeat the purpose? ­the antibiotics are successful at killing bad bacteria present and end up out­competing   Them for resources * “semi­synthetic” PRESENT AND FUTURE CHALLENGES ­emerging diseases continue to arise ­threat to life is dependent on where we live (some diseases ONLY exist in certain parts of the   World—hence vaccinations when you travel) ­change in lifestyles increase opportunity for disease to spread ­some diseases that used to be animal­specific can now infect humans, and vice versa   (HIV/AIDS, swine flu, bird flu…) Multidrug­resistant tuberculosis: resists many different type of antibiotics  E co  O157:H7­ commonly associated with cattle—food poisoning, effects gastrointestinal      tract—can lead to kidney failure and death if not treated properly Reemerging Diseases **vaccination can become a victim of its own success 1/13­1/15 ­people become so afraid of getting sick from the vaccines that they don’t get vaccinated *outbreaks happen BECAUSE no one gets vaccinated (MMR, whooping cough) **pathogens CAN become resistant to antibiotics HOSTS­MICROBE INTERACTIONS Normal microbiota: “normal flora”—microbes that are accepted by our bodies—beneficial under          NORMAL circumstances (BENEFICIAL) *help immune system fight infections *help in digestion Pathogens: damage body tissues and lead to disease symptoms (HARMFUL) Microbes can effect: 1. Metabolism           2. Taste preference           3. Behavior           4. Emotions MEMBERS OF THE MICROBIAL WORLD 2 cell structures: 1. Prokaryotes­ no nucleus     2. Eukaryotes­ has a nucleus and organelles 3 domains: 1. Bacteria          Prokaryotic, unicellular        2. Archaea                                                           All have unique qualities        3. Eukarya­ multicellular (algae, protozoa, fungi…) Bacteria: ­prokaryotic: has nucleoid, NO organelles (“prenucleus”) ­DNA is made in the nucleoid ­RNA (ribosomes) ­unicellular ­cell wall with peptidoglycan ­size: ~.3–2 micro millimeters ­most have specific shapes: rod, spherical, or spiral ­multiply via binary fission ­move using flagella Archaea:  ­prokaryotic: has nucleoid, NO organelles ­RNA (ribosomes) 1/13­1/15 ­unicellular ­NO peptidoglycan ­size: ~.3–2 micrometers ­shapes are similar to Bacteria ­multiply via binary fission ­can move using flagella ­extremophiles: live in extreme conditions (high slat concentration, tempuratures…) Eukarya: ­eukaryotic: has nucleus and organelles (“true nucleus”) ­RNA (ribosomes) ­uni OR multicellular ­NO peptidoglycan ­size: 5–50 micrometers ­very complex Acellular infectious agents: viruses, viroids, prions      *non­living NOMENCLATURE ­binomial system *Genus: capitalized AND italicized, or underlined (may be abbreviated) *Species: not capitalized BUT italicized or underlined 


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