Class Note for ECOL 302 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Biological Communities The Biome Concept Educational Goals Be familiar with 39 How ecological communities are classified at the global scale 39 The significance of convergence 39 Reasons for basing the biome classification on dominant plant forms and climate 39 Walter s climate classification 39 Whittaker s biome classification Form and function match the environment Convergence Eg desert plants Classification A Global Perspective Biome Classification Global Perspective Why plants Why climate One Plant Form Two Biomes Temperate salt marshes and grasslands Both dominated by the same plant form 2 very different environments Not all biome classi cations are the same El Waudlandlshruhhnd i Subxmpiczl deun E Tundra fomsl lTem grate sslam l arequot mumquot ESAI in amtquot gm rm P ii Temperate seixunal i Pull Bren ice cap Adaptations and Environment Not the Whole Story Species distribution not solely function of relationships to physical environment Climate is the major determinant of plant distribution Climate defines the boundaries of terrestrial biomes Heinrich Walter schemes based upon Relates to moisture and temperature stress on the dominant plants Walter s Climate Classi cation Climaln lulu Always main and lacking lamparamra sezsuni ny Summer rainy season and minim dry season Subkmvical he drum Hiylly Manual arid clilrlale Vegalarillll Evugmen rropiral rain arm Seasonal fonsx snub or savanna Dram Vegelz nn with wnsilirrnble exposed sulfa IV Mediterranean WinIer rainy season SceNPhyllous dmughtadapledlr and rlllnrller drought ErosMellai e shrulllandr 2nd woodlands v Warnl Amperlke lempalalr evergrem mar Ocusinnal mac men will smewhal Imnoenrilive summer rainfall maximum VI Nrmornll Moderale climate wirll Franrresimnl decidmls lemperale lures winter freeung VII Conllnenlal cold dermal Grasslands and lumpeer linens Arid wirll warm at box summers and cad winlels VI namal Cold temperla cnnl Evergmen ranhardy needleleaven summers and long winIus forest llaiga Ix Polar Very shun cuol summers Low Evergreen vegeaaliorl willlour lraas and long my cold wirlrrrs grawlng nVBr pamznamly small sells Biomes correspond closely to major climate zones Biome nalnc clilrlale zone Vegetation 1ropiral rain iorerl Ennaron39almlwayr moirl arlll larlring rampmlnm scmnzlily Evzrgrecn lmoical rain marl Ttovical sllmrner ny seam and Seasonal lnrrsll mall in savanna In dry mason slllllmoical Alla imam Highly seasonal arirl climax Desen gnarlall will columnIN exwrea suf x Scemphyllnns lamalrlllaaaolao frondmnlwz shmblan s anll wamlands Madiknanwn Winler lainy reason no nlmrnar nmnglll Warm lrmprral Goodallll imrn o ul wirll summer 2 maximum Tmpenle evergreen fore snmewhl mmmirive Nerrlalal deuil climate wilh winlar lrming meishnl araiaolls kmp au alas 39renlperale grassland VII clllllzllelllal laola deserts ararrlanllr allrl lemllerale rlererlr desert Arid with warm or mll alllnmrlr an all willlelr Bum fumsl Vlll lineal Cold reinvent will ml Evellmuh milhardy needlelemma alllnlllrlr ana lung winrelr fares algal lunara lx Pnlzl Vary rlnlrl on rllmnlrlr Law evrrgleell vegu zrian willllllll llrer and long my l winlels govling ovnr llerrllananlly koun soila Walter s Climate Diagrams Climate Biome Eleva 50 40 ID 20 Temperature quotc A 20 I F Annual precipitation mm Average temperature quotC IASOND M A M 1 Month 100 so I 50 E 40 E 393 A 20 9 8 o 5 Iempmmre quotc c mme Continental VII Binnie Temperate grassland desen Elevation 319 menus 4quot Aunualvmiwhno aw mm 20 Avr getemvmlumll0quotc JASONDI FMAMI Mona smckhoim Sweden Cl am nrealNlll Bion Bomallorest Elevatlan 156 meters Aim re yhamquot 575 m Avmgu quotmum 14 39c IFMAMI I ASOND Monlll gage lake Canada ij sigma undn Elevatinn 4 quotMel Annunlvmrlulvon z 3 mm Avuagewmpanuue imzc IFMAMI IASOND Mandi Precipitation mm Lisbon Portugal Valparaiso Chile Climate Mediterranean Climate Mediterranean Climate Mediterranean llV IV IV Biome Woodland Biome Woodland Biome Woodland shrubland shrubland shmbland I Elevation 41 meters Elevation 17 meters Elevation 77 meters l u V 30 5 e0 23 E I f 39 9 a a V e 20 E E 0 Annual preci ha on Annual precipimtiun Annual pmlBitatjnn 0 a 3 10 461 mm son mm 708 mm E E20 Average temp lAJ 39c Average temp 17 DC Average Kemp I66 quotc 395 l3 JASONol39FMAM llASONDIFMAM IFMAMIIASOND Ag Month Month Month Whittaker s Biome Classi cation a E 400 39 E39 E e 5 3 E 300 Decreasing temperature I E a zoo i I E E lt loo Subtmpicl Tempera 0 dm wlanddesen mm 30 20 10 o 10 Average temperature 0 Classification Soheme s Other Considerations Fire shapes vegetation toward drier end of spectrum Biome Concept Doesn t Exist for Aquatic Systems What distinguishes a biome Have their own classi cation system Aquatic Ecosystems each has unique physical factoafs and biota Apply ClimateBiome Classification Equatorial and tropical biomes Temperate biomes Boreal and polar biomes Equatorial and Tropical Climate Zones Andagoya Colouh Climate Equatorial I Elevatin 65 meters 40 80 30 60 20 40 ID 20 o I r v 0 Annual precipit o39n 6905 mm 39 m I lofrscale 20 Average temperature 271 C llFMAMllASOND Month Temperature Dc Precipitation mm Ion Tropical rain forest Increasing precipi Decreasing temperature C lmate Tropical ll Elevation 910 meters 40 80 30 60 2 I0 0 l0 Annual precipitation l560 mm 20 r Average temperature 218 C EMAer ASOND T Month Temperature c T Precipitation mm Increasing precipitalitm Temperate seasonal forest avanna Decreasing temperature Temperate Climate Zones Biomes differentiated by Climate Nemoral VI Elevation 337 meters Annual precipitation 700 nim 20 Average temperature 108 c TIFMAMIIASOMD Month Temperate seasonal forest T Decreasing remperarure Temperature c a Precipitation mm c1 Iayo Peru Clima 39 Subimpical hot desens Ill Elevation 31 meters quot0 Annual precipiuarion 1 rnrn 20 Average Iempcnlure 2L9 c FMAM ASOND Monlh Temperature c ca Precipitation mm Sublmpical destn lnmasing precipita on Decreasing lemperalure Boreal and Polar Climate Zones Boreal forest taiga 5 C and 5 C Tundra below 5 C J39E z 39 Boreal Forest Biome Smnklmlm Swedm Climate Banal VIII Elevation Isr memes 40 30 Zn In a I quot 7 quot7 251 precipitation 57 min 20 Average temperamre M quotc Boreal Increasing precipitation I F M A M I 7 quotA s 0 N D Dacreanng lemperalun Mona Temperature n Precipitation mm Significance Biome approach integrates plant form and climate Whittaker s biome and Walter s climate classification are compatible Climate zonesbiomes distinguished by
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