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Gen Chem 2, week 1 notes

by: Emmanuel Notetaker

Gen Chem 2, week 1 notes 603613

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Chemistry > 603613 > Gen Chem 2 week 1 notes
Emmanuel Notetaker
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About this Document

This notes cover Chap 12- Intermolecular Forces - solid,liquid and Phase Changes
Gen Chem II
waddell, D
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emmanuel Notetaker on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 603613 at University of Cincinnati taught by waddell, D in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Gen Chem II in Chemistry at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Chap 12­Intermolecular forces: Liquids, Solids and Phase Changes Intermolecular forces   ­     Forces of attraction between molecules, weaker than  covalent and ionic bonds There are four types of intermolecular forces (Weakest to Strongest) 1. London Dispersion Forces (LDF) ­ Present in all substances, but exclusive in  non –polar substances. LDF’s increase in molecular weight or molecular size. 2. Dipole­Dipole Forces: Present in all polar molecules. Dipole­Dipole forces  increase with increased polarity 3. Hydrogen Bonding: Present in molecules that contain N­H, O­H or F­H bond.  Hydrogen bonding is far stronger than either Dipole­Dipole or LDF. Strength: F­H  > O­H > N­H. 4. Ionic Bonds: Extremely high melting and boiling points due to the High  electrostatic attraction between molecules. The more electrons that are share b/n  atoms or the more polarized the bond is, the stronger the intermolecular forces are. Crystalline solids  ­ Atoms, ions or molecules arranged in an orderly, repeating, 3­ dimensional pattern called a crystal lattice ­can be ionic (ex­Salt) or covalent (ex­Sugar) Amorphous solids     ­    lack an ordered internal structure, the atoms are randomly  arranged ex: glass, rubber, plastic Hygroscopic compounds  ­ Hydrated salts with a low vapor pressure that remove  moisture from the air. ex­ sugar, iodine, sulphric acid Deliquescent compounds ­  Compounds that remove enough water from the air to  dissolve completely and form solutions Allotropes  ­Two  or more different molecular forms of the same element in the  same physical state Vaporization  ­ conversion of liquid to gas or vapor, kinetic energy must be  Condensation  ­ conversion of gas to a liquid Sublimation    ­ The transition of a substance directly from solid to gas phase  without passing through liquid phase Evaporation    ­   conversion of liquid to gas at the surface of a liquid that is not  boiling Chap 12­Intermolecular forces: Liquids, Solids and Phase Changes ­happens faster when heated ­cooling process Why is evaporation a cooling process? The particles with the highest kinetic energy escape first and take the heat with  them, the particles left have a lower average kinetic energy so that the liquid's  temperature decreases How is vapor pressure created ­ When particles of a liquid evaporate in a closed  container, the particles collide with the walls and produce vapor pressure What is vapor pressure  ­ The force due to the gas above the liquid in a closed  space Relationship between temperature and vapor pressure ­ If there is higher  temperature, kinetic energy increases which means more collisions When the vapor pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure, the substance will boil. Volatile ­   liquid that evaporates easily due to weak IMFs between molecules  (nonvolatile liquids evaporate slowly because of their strong IMFs). Boiling point  ­ Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is just equal to  the external pressure (boiling point changes as external pressure changes) ­low pressure, boiling points lower b/c particles need less kinetic energy to escape  liquids ­high pressure, boiling point is higher b/c more kinetic energy is needed to escape  liquid What does the atmosphere do in addition to the IMFs present between molecules?    ­it exerts a downward force viscosity­ High resistance to flow against gravity ex­> honey, molasses Miscibility: The dissolving point for polar and non­polar bonds Chap 12­Intermolecular forces: Liquids, Solids and Phase Changes What creates surface tension in water  ­ Water is a polar molecule and can't form  hydrogen bonds with air and turns into the body of the liquid


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