Week 1 Notes - PSY 202
Week 1 Notes - PSY 202 PSY 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jordan Pennefather in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
Chapter 1 (Day 2) 1/6/16 - Psychology is about you and about Us - Most popular major @ many colleges - Personally relevant to us all - Why Do Psychology? 1. How can we differentiate between uninformed opinions & examined conclusions? 2. The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, & act as they do! - What About Intuition & Common Sense? - Many people believe intuition & common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. - Intuition & common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error - Hindsight Bias - Hindsight Bias = “I knew it all along” phenomenon - After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the dot.com stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet. - What Are the Seven Themes of Psychological Science? 1. Psychology Is an Empirical Science 2. Nature & Nurture are Inextricably Intertwined 3. The Brain & Mind Are Inseparable 4. A New Biological Revolution Is Energizing Research 5. The Mind Is Adaptive 6. Mating Preferences 7. Solving Adaptive Problems - Psychology Is an Empirical Science - Scientific Method: objective, systematic procedures used to understand what is being studied - Understanding how science is conducted makes it possible to tell which studies are credible & which are not - Nature & Nurture are Inextricably Intertwined - Are psychological characteristics a product of nature or nurture? Chapter 1 (Day 2) 1/6/16 - Biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, or culture - Psychologists now widely recognize both as important - Nature = biologically (through genes); Nurture = environment - The Brain & Mid Are Inseparable - Rene Descartes’ theory of dualism - Maintained distinction between mind & body - Assigned body many mental fuctions previously considered mind’s domain - Psychological scientists largely reject dualistic thinking - Mind is what body does - Phineas Gage (railroad worker; steel rod lodged in brain) - A New Biological Revolution Is Energizing Research - Growth in understanding mental activities’ biological bases - Interest in biology permeates psychological science - MRIs - The Mind Is Adaptive - Brain has evolved over millions of years to solve problems related to survival & reproduction - Mind is adaptive in biological & cultural terms - Genetic mutations - Evolutionary theory: determining whether human mechanisms are adaptive - Need to be aware of the challenges of our ancestors in order to understand our current behavior - We like sweet & fatty foods; early days needed fat to stay warm - Mating preferences (attraction) - Culture provides adaptive solutions! - Dependency on group culture - Cultural evolution has been much faster than biological evolution - Evidence that people from different cultures possess different minds - Mating Preferences - Males look for youthful appearing females in order to pass their genes into future generations. - Females on other hand, look for maturity, dominance, affluence, & boldness in males Chapter 1 (Day 2) 1/6/16 - Solving Adaptive Problems - humans have “cheater detectors” (Cosmides & Tooby, 2000) - visual cliff: infants won’t crawl over cliff, even if mother in encouraging them (box covered w/ glass) - adaptive mechanisms enhance our chances of survival - Psychological Science Crosses Levels of Analysis - 4 levels of analysis reflect most common research methods for studying behaviors - biological - individual - social - cultural - Biological Level - Physical body contributes to mind & body - Neurochemical & genetic processes - Individual Level - Differences in personality - Mental processes that affect how people perceive the world - Social Level - Group contexts affect people’s ways of interacting & influencing each other - Cultural Level - How cultural things affect you - W.E.I.R.D. Science - Over the history of psychology the majority of studies have used WEIRD populations: Western Educated Industrial Rich Democratic - Cultural psychology is subfield of psychology that attempts to determine how culture influences our behaviors, thoughts, motives, perceptions … Chapter 1 (Day 2) 1/6/16 - Reflections on Psychological Influences: Biological Influences: - Gene-environment - Shared human genome interaction - Individual genetic variations - Neurological effect of early experiences - Prenatal environment - Responses envoked by our - Sex-related genes, our own temperament, hormones, & gender … Development Personal Development Social-cultural Influences: - Parental influences - Peer influences - Cultural individualism / collectivism - We Are Unaware of Influences on How We Think, Feel, & Act - People are influenced by subtle factors in their environments, even when they largely are unaware of those influences. - Some factors influence our thoughts, feelings, & behaviors at an unconscious level - Experimental Psychology Begins with Structuralism - History of Experimental Psychology: William Wundt developed method of introspection - Introspection = systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect & report on content of their thoughts - Edward Titchener pioneered structuralism Chapter 1 (Day 2) 1/6/16 - Structuralism = based on idea that conscious experience can be broken down into underlying thoughts - William James - Critic of structuralism - Coined term “stream of consciousness”; ever-changing, continuous series of thoughts - Prepared approach of functionalism; argued that functions of mind, rather than its element should be psychologist’s focus - Gestalt Psychology Emphasizes Patterns & Context in Learning - Second school of thought opposed to structuralism - Personal experience is not simply sum of its constituent parts - Perception of objects is subjective & dependent on context - Blue / Black (White / Gold) dress - Freud Emphasized the Power of the Unconscious - Sigmund Freud = key figure in history of psychology - Much of human behavior = determined by mental processes operating below level of conscious awareness; at level of unconscious - Pioneered case study approach - Most Behavior Can Be Modified by Reward & Punishment - John B. Watson - Challenged focus of psychology on conscious & unconscious mental processes - Proposed idea of behavioralism, an approach that emphasizes environmental effects on behavior - Pavlov experiment (salivating dog video) - Cognition Affects Behavior - George A. Miller defined field of cognitive psychology (concerned w/ higher-order mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory, & decision making) - Social Situations Shape Behavior - Social Psychology = focused on power of situation & on way people are shaped through interactions w/ others - Adolf Eichmann & power of social situations - Psychological Therapy Is Based on Science - Humanistic approach to treatment of psychological disorders - Developed in 1950s by Carl Rodgers & Abraham Maslow - Emphasized how people can come to know & accept themselves in order to reach their unique potential. Chapter 1 (Day 2) 1/6/16 - People Are Intuitive Psychological Scientists - by nature, humans are intuitive psychological scientists - develop hypotheses about & try to predict others’ behavior - Psychological Science Requires Critical Thinking - Critical Thinking = systematic way of evaluating info to reach reasonable conclusions - Thinking that is purposeful, reasoned, & goal directed - Used in solving problems, formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, & making decisions - Psychologists Adhere to a Code of Ethics - American Psychological Association publishes code that all its members must respect - Respectful to all people, treating them w/ dignity, & protection from potential harm - Ethical dilemmas - Psychology Is Relevant to Every Person’s Life - Insights of psychology are critical in almost every sphere of our lives & its content - Explaining how humans think, feel, & behave - universal
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