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Week 2

by: Taryn manciu

Week 2 Hist309

Taryn manciu
GPA 3.46

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Document Analysis, and wednsdeday course notes.
History of Women in the U.S. part 2
Professor Bufalino
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in History of Women in the U.S. part 2

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taryn manciu on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist309 at University of Oregon taught by Professor Bufalino in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History of Women in the U.S. part 2 in History at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
HIST  309   Week  2  Monday     Primary  Source  Analysis     “The  Yellow  Wallpaper”   -­‐She  told  herself  she  was  sick  à  Pg.  648   -­‐Husband  says  no  reason  to  be  sick/temporary  nausea  à  Pg.  648   -­‐Possibly  post-­‐partum  depression/loneliness  à  Pg.  649   Symptoms:     -­‐Easily  tired     -­‐Loss  of  appetite     -­‐Unreasonably  angry/  cries  all  the  time  =  extremely  emotional     -­‐Treatment  =  husband  sends  her  someplace  à  Pg.  648     -­‐Isolation/inactivity/get  air  à  Pg.  648     -­‐She  wants  to  see  her  cousin  but  he  wont  let  her  à  Pg.  649     -­‐Gives  her  medicine  (tonic/cod-­‐liver  oil)  à  Pg.  651   Treatment  Symptoms     -­‐Hallucinations     -­‐Obsessing  over  wallpaper/wallpaper  coming  alive/people  escaping     wallpaper     “Story  of  An  Hour”   Rang  of  emotions:     -­‐Grief  stricken     -­‐Denial     -­‐Excitement     -­‐Jubilation   Husband  Wife  Relationship:     -­‐Loved  him  sometimes  but  not  often     -­‐Women  controlled  in  marriage     -­‐Women’s  roles  in  marriage     -­‐Expected  to  take  care  of  husband  (she  can  take  care  of  herself  now   Why  does  she  die?     -­‐Heart  attack  after  learning  her  husband  is  still  alive   Gender  Relations:     -­‐Marriage  is  everything     -­‐She  clearly  didn’t  want  to  be  married  but  was     “Trifles”   Why  might  be  renamed  “Jury  of  her  Peers”     -­‐2  Women  allowed  onto  crime  scene  à  hid  evidence     -­‐Deciding  her  guiltiness/hiding  evidence  to  support  it   Motive  for  murder  (Mrs.  Hale/Mrs.  Peters)     -­‐He  isolated  the  wife/killed  the  bird  only  from  interaction     -­‐Gets  referred  to  as  maiden  name  =  Minnie  Foster     -­‐Real  crime     -­‐Mrs.  Hale  (neighbor)  never  visiting  the  wife/  let  her  become     depressed/alone  (death  of     wife)   Why  do  they  remove  evidence  from  the  scene?     -­‐Hale/Peters  try  to  sympathize  with  the  wife     -­‐Men  wont  understand     Overall  questions:     How  did  the  cult  of  true  womanhood  challenge  the  reading?   -­‐Domesticity     -­‐YW:  she  doesn’t/cant  interact  with  her  baby     -­‐SOAH:  thinks  she  wont  be  a  wife  anymore=  happiness     -­‐T:  wife  lonely/isolated.  Wasn’t  doing  a  “wifely”  duty  even  though  she  had     time   -­‐Submissiveness     -­‐YW:  follows  husbands  orders  with  bad  results     -­‐SOAH:  want  husband  dead/not  conforming  to  “ideal  woman”     -­‐T:  wants  husband  dead/not  conforming  to  “ideal  woman”                                                           Week  2  Wednesday     Women  and  Industrialization     Lecture  Themes:   -­‐Industrialization  transformed  the  ways  in  which  many  Americans  lived  and  worked;   idealized  a  division  of  labor  between  men  and  women  in  which  women  were  viewed  as   “nonproductive”   -­‐Industrial  labor  force  was  stratified  by  class,  race,  ethnic  &  gender  hierarchies,   assumptions  about  women  justified  gender  discrimination  against  women  wage   earners  but  also  made  women’s  industrial  labor  valuable   -­‐Women  workers  fought  for  recognition  as  workers,  as  citizens  &  as  “ladies”     -­‐For  women  the  home  is  going  to  become  a  place  that  us  unproductive     -­‐Women  workers  are  going  to  be  extremely  valuable     -­‐Women  are  going  to  NEED  to  work  in  the  industrial  workplace       -­‐Women  shouldn’t  be  there  (leads  to  intensifying  hierarchy)       -­‐Who’s  willing  to  work  for  the  least  amount  of  money?     -­‐Existing  ideas  about  women  is  going  to  lead  to  more  discrimination     -­‐Women  and  people  of  color  are  going  to  highly  valuable  because  they  can  be     hired  for  very  little  money     -­‐Individual  women  workers  are  going  to  exercise  their  autonomy  their     choices  but  not  accept  their  circumstances  and  challenge  the  existing  culture     and  discrimination       Industrialization:  transformation  of  American  society  following  the  civil  war   (1861-­‐1865)  from  one  organized  around  an  agrarian  to  a  machine-­‐oriented   economy     Requisite  Conditions:     -­‐Natural  Resources/Sources  of  power     -­‐Surplus  Labor!!  (A  lot  of  people  competing  for  jobs  that  wont  be  a  livable     wage)     -­‐Capital  Investment     -­‐Tech.  innovation     -­‐Gov.  Support   -­‐The  amount  of  skill  required  to  make  a  mass  produced  item  is  very  little  compared   to  the  amount  of  skill  needed  to  make  a  handcrafted  item  (unskilled/skilled  labor)   -­‐Huge  shift  in  how  business  owners  manage  their  business                   Impact  of  Industrialization:   Changes  in  Geography     -­‐Migration  and  immigration     -­‐Rural  to  urban   Changes  in  business  Practices     -­‐Technology-­‐driven  mass  production     -­‐Rise  of  corporation     -­‐Rise  of  culture  of  mass  consumption   Changes  in  Culture     -­‐Changes  in  work  practices  and  relationships       -­‐More  anonymous  relationship  (may  not  know  employer)       -­‐Increasing  class  stratification       -­‐The  wealthy  get  wealthier  and  the  poor  get  poorer     -­‐Rise  of  middle  class  (professionals  that  support  the  industrial  change)     -­‐Rise  of  cult  of  true  womanhood       Waves  of  immigrant  workers:   -­‐Percentage  of  foreign-­‐born  pop.  Just  under  15%  1970-­‐1890     -­‐Overwhelming  majority  of  Americans  were  born  in  the  US     -­‐Congregated  largely  in  urban  centers  which  grew  550%  between  1870-­‐1920     -­‐Seeing  significant  amount  of  immigration     -­‐Immigrants  remaining  in  cities  (results  in  growth  in  cities)   -­‐Immigration  to  the  East  coast  (influx  of  people  into  NY)     -­‐Median  age  25  men  and  women     -­‐1870-­‐1890  from  northern  Europe,  esp.  Ireland  (potato  famine)     -­‐1890-­‐1917  from  southern  and  eastern  Europe  esp.  Italy  and  Russia   -­‐Women  Wage  Earners  in  1890     -­‐Urban  U.S         -­‐Unmarried,  2  gen.  native  born  43%  WORKED       -­‐Unmarried,  1  gen.  native  born  54%  WORKED       -­‐Unmarried,  foreign-­‐born  82%  WORKED       -­‐Black  Women  82.5%  WORKED       -­‐Married  Women  16%  WORKED     -­‐Interpreting  the  stats.       -­‐What  factors  most  contributed  to  the  likelihood  that  a  woman           worked  for  wages?  A  woman  that  is  a  person  of  color,  weather           you’re  foreign  born  or  native  born  (more  likely  not  to  work  if  you’re         influenced  by  the  COTW,  Marital  status  (being  married  was  an           indicator  that  you  would  not  work  outside  of  the  home)                   Urbanization:     -­‐Urban  pop.  Growth  leads  the  conflicts  over  housing  and  jobs  in  working-­‐   class  neighborhoods  and  slums       -­‐Slums  (putting  cardboard  walls  up  and  sheets  to  make  “housing”,         families  living  in  single  rooms,  gangs,  sudden  change  in             neighborhood  caused  riots  and  conflict         -­‐Immigrants  that  don’t  have  enough  skills,  money,  etc.  direct  to  slums         because  it’s  all  they  can  afford/  is  available     -­‐Tenements  served  as  worked  spaces  for  poor  women  and  children       -­‐Childcare  not  available,  very  difficult  for  women,  dangerous  (safety,         sanitation)     -­‐Women  (and  children)  presence  in  public/work  spaces  presented  dangers     and  opportunities         -­‐View  that  women  and  children  should  not  be  in  the  street       -­‐Middle  class  find  fault  within  themselves  and  forcing  their  family  to         live  in  the  street     Piece-­‐work     -­‐Employed  mostly  women     -­‐Worked  at  home  (in  tenements  such  as  NYC’s  lower  east  side)     -­‐Not  unionized,  paid  by  piece  (company  hires  individual  to  do  work  at  home     making  items  piece  by  piece,  family  would  receive  parcel  that  would  have  all     individual  parts  and  they  would  engage  in  the  delicate  work  of  constructing     the  item)         -­‐If  you  work  slowly  you  get  paid  less       -­‐If  its  poor  quality  too  bad       -­‐If  something  happens  to  product  don’t  get  paid       -­‐Good  deal  for  employers  can  pay  EXTREAMLY  low  wages;  don’t  have         to  worry  about  amount  of  workers     -­‐Mostly  textile     -­‐Lowest  individual  wages           Wage-­‐earning  Opportunities     -­‐Women  considered  unskilled     -­‐Paid  domestic  labor  (working  as  a  maid,  cook,  taking  out  washing  or     mending,  domestic  servant)         -­‐Always  working,  exploitation       -­‐Except  among  African-­‐Americans)     -­‐Low-­‐unskilled  factory  work,  clerical,  service  work  increasing  (latter  2     dominated  ultimately  dominated  by  women)         -­‐More  “freedom”  work  hours  were  set  once  you  went  home  with  your         money  it  was  yours     -­‐Wage  discrimination       -­‐For  the  same  work  women  could  be  paid  60%  of  what  a  man  would         make       -­‐Assumption  that  a  women  who  was  working  was  single,  their  wage         could  be  lower  because  they  had  another  source  of  income  from  a         man     -­‐Sexual  Commerce       -­‐Courting,  treating,  prostitution     Assumptions  about  women  workers   -­‐Unskilled     -­‐Because  working  was  seen  as  an  unnatural  place  for  women  to  be     -­‐All  lowest  paid  jobs  were  considered  unskilled  and  these  were  the  only  jobs     available  to  women   -­‐Temporary     -­‐Thought  was  that  she  would  get  married  and  have  kids  and  no  longer  work   -­‐Biologically  ill-­‐suited  for  productive  work     -­‐Discriminated  against,  unions  did  not  welcome  women  (viewed  as     competing  with  men  for  jobs)   -­‐Needed  and  had  “protection”   -­‐Morally  compromised     -­‐Involved  in  prostitution  or  could  be     -­‐Was  aware  of  sexual  harassment   -­‐These  assumptions  justified  gender  discrimination     -­‐Lower  wages     -­‐Lack  of  union  representation     -­‐Discrimination  in  hiring,  firing  and  promotion     -­‐Sexual  harassment     -­‐“Protective  laws”  that  limited  job  opportunities                                


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