Popular in History of Women in the U.S. part 2
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Popular in History
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taryn manciu on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist309 at University of Oregon taught by Professor Bufalino in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History of Women in the U.S. part 2 in History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/17/16
HIST 309 Week 2 Monday Primary Source Analysis “The Yellow Wallpaper” -‐She told herself she was sick à Pg. 648 -‐Husband says no reason to be sick/temporary nausea à Pg. 648 -‐Possibly post-‐partum depression/loneliness à Pg. 649 Symptoms: -‐Easily tired -‐Loss of appetite -‐Unreasonably angry/ cries all the time = extremely emotional -‐Treatment = husband sends her someplace à Pg. 648 -‐Isolation/inactivity/get air à Pg. 648 -‐She wants to see her cousin but he wont let her à Pg. 649 -‐Gives her medicine (tonic/cod-‐liver oil) à Pg. 651 Treatment Symptoms -‐Hallucinations -‐Obsessing over wallpaper/wallpaper coming alive/people escaping wallpaper “Story of An Hour” Rang of emotions: -‐Grief stricken -‐Denial -‐Excitement -‐Jubilation Husband Wife Relationship: -‐Loved him sometimes but not often -‐Women controlled in marriage -‐Women’s roles in marriage -‐Expected to take care of husband (she can take care of herself now Why does she die? -‐Heart attack after learning her husband is still alive Gender Relations: -‐Marriage is everything -‐She clearly didn’t want to be married but was “Trifles” Why might be renamed “Jury of her Peers” -‐2 Women allowed onto crime scene à hid evidence -‐Deciding her guiltiness/hiding evidence to support it Motive for murder (Mrs. Hale/Mrs. Peters) -‐He isolated the wife/killed the bird only from interaction -‐Gets referred to as maiden name = Minnie Foster -‐Real crime -‐Mrs. Hale (neighbor) never visiting the wife/ let her become depressed/alone (death of wife) Why do they remove evidence from the scene? -‐Hale/Peters try to sympathize with the wife -‐Men wont understand Overall questions: How did the cult of true womanhood challenge the reading? -‐Domesticity -‐YW: she doesn’t/cant interact with her baby -‐SOAH: thinks she wont be a wife anymore= happiness -‐T: wife lonely/isolated. Wasn’t doing a “wifely” duty even though she had time -‐Submissiveness -‐YW: follows husbands orders with bad results -‐SOAH: want husband dead/not conforming to “ideal woman” -‐T: wants husband dead/not conforming to “ideal woman” Week 2 Wednesday Women and Industrialization Lecture Themes: -‐Industrialization transformed the ways in which many Americans lived and worked; idealized a division of labor between men and women in which women were viewed as “nonproductive” -‐Industrial labor force was stratified by class, race, ethnic & gender hierarchies, assumptions about women justified gender discrimination against women wage earners but also made women’s industrial labor valuable -‐Women workers fought for recognition as workers, as citizens & as “ladies” -‐For women the home is going to become a place that us unproductive -‐Women workers are going to be extremely valuable -‐Women are going to NEED to work in the industrial workplace -‐Women shouldn’t be there (leads to intensifying hierarchy) -‐Who’s willing to work for the least amount of money? -‐Existing ideas about women is going to lead to more discrimination -‐Women and people of color are going to highly valuable because they can be hired for very little money -‐Individual women workers are going to exercise their autonomy their choices but not accept their circumstances and challenge the existing culture and discrimination Industrialization: transformation of American society following the civil war (1861-‐1865) from one organized around an agrarian to a machine-‐oriented economy Requisite Conditions: -‐Natural Resources/Sources of power -‐Surplus Labor!! (A lot of people competing for jobs that wont be a livable wage) -‐Capital Investment -‐Tech. innovation -‐Gov. Support -‐The amount of skill required to make a mass produced item is very little compared to the amount of skill needed to make a handcrafted item (unskilled/skilled labor) -‐Huge shift in how business owners manage their business Impact of Industrialization: Changes in Geography -‐Migration and immigration -‐Rural to urban Changes in business Practices -‐Technology-‐driven mass production -‐Rise of corporation -‐Rise of culture of mass consumption Changes in Culture -‐Changes in work practices and relationships -‐More anonymous relationship (may not know employer) -‐Increasing class stratification -‐The wealthy get wealthier and the poor get poorer -‐Rise of middle class (professionals that support the industrial change) -‐Rise of cult of true womanhood Waves of immigrant workers: -‐Percentage of foreign-‐born pop. Just under 15% 1970-‐1890 -‐Overwhelming majority of Americans were born in the US -‐Congregated largely in urban centers which grew 550% between 1870-‐1920 -‐Seeing significant amount of immigration -‐Immigrants remaining in cities (results in growth in cities) -‐Immigration to the East coast (influx of people into NY) -‐Median age 25 men and women -‐1870-‐1890 from northern Europe, esp. Ireland (potato famine) -‐1890-‐1917 from southern and eastern Europe esp. Italy and Russia -‐Women Wage Earners in 1890 -‐Urban U.S -‐Unmarried, 2 gen. native born 43% WORKED -‐Unmarried, 1 gen. native born 54% WORKED -‐Unmarried, foreign-‐born 82% WORKED -‐Black Women 82.5% WORKED -‐Married Women 16% WORKED -‐Interpreting the stats. -‐What factors most contributed to the likelihood that a woman worked for wages? A woman that is a person of color, weather you’re foreign born or native born (more likely not to work if you’re influenced by the COTW, Marital status (being married was an indicator that you would not work outside of the home) Urbanization: -‐Urban pop. Growth leads the conflicts over housing and jobs in working-‐ class neighborhoods and slums -‐Slums (putting cardboard walls up and sheets to make “housing”, families living in single rooms, gangs, sudden change in neighborhood caused riots and conflict -‐Immigrants that don’t have enough skills, money, etc. direct to slums because it’s all they can afford/ is available -‐Tenements served as worked spaces for poor women and children -‐Childcare not available, very difficult for women, dangerous (safety, sanitation) -‐Women (and children) presence in public/work spaces presented dangers and opportunities -‐View that women and children should not be in the street -‐Middle class find fault within themselves and forcing their family to live in the street Piece-‐work -‐Employed mostly women -‐Worked at home (in tenements such as NYC’s lower east side) -‐Not unionized, paid by piece (company hires individual to do work at home making items piece by piece, family would receive parcel that would have all individual parts and they would engage in the delicate work of constructing the item) -‐If you work slowly you get paid less -‐If its poor quality too bad -‐If something happens to product don’t get paid -‐Good deal for employers can pay EXTREAMLY low wages; don’t have to worry about amount of workers -‐Mostly textile -‐Lowest individual wages Wage-‐earning Opportunities -‐Women considered unskilled -‐Paid domestic labor (working as a maid, cook, taking out washing or mending, domestic servant) -‐Always working, exploitation -‐Except among African-‐Americans) -‐Low-‐unskilled factory work, clerical, service work increasing (latter 2 dominated ultimately dominated by women) -‐More “freedom” work hours were set once you went home with your money it was yours -‐Wage discrimination -‐For the same work women could be paid 60% of what a man would make -‐Assumption that a women who was working was single, their wage could be lower because they had another source of income from a man -‐Sexual Commerce -‐Courting, treating, prostitution Assumptions about women workers -‐Unskilled -‐Because working was seen as an unnatural place for women to be -‐All lowest paid jobs were considered unskilled and these were the only jobs available to women -‐Temporary -‐Thought was that she would get married and have kids and no longer work -‐Biologically ill-‐suited for productive work -‐Discriminated against, unions did not welcome women (viewed as competing with men for jobs) -‐Needed and had “protection” -‐Morally compromised -‐Involved in prostitution or could be -‐Was aware of sexual harassment -‐These assumptions justified gender discrimination -‐Lower wages -‐Lack of union representation -‐Discrimination in hiring, firing and promotion -‐Sexual harassment -‐“Protective laws” that limited job opportunities
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