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Bio 467: Week 1 Notes

by: jaaibirdd

Bio 467: Week 1 Notes BIO 467

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About this Document

These are the notes from the first week of class. Feel free to reach out with any questions~
Dr. Newbern
Class Notes




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by jaaibirdd on Sunday January 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 467 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Newbern in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Neurobiology in Biology at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 01/17/16
Lecture 1: 1/11- Mon ▯ Nervous system- learning, emotion, thought, sensation, & many more processes! ▯ Brain function requires a good chunk of resources  i.e. glucose, blood vessels ▯ According to WHO (2020) estimates for top 10 causes of "disease burden"- nervous system disorders fill 2 spots.  include depression & dementia/other degenerative CNS diseases o also a cause of economic difficulty ▯ In 2013, "K" supercomputer simulated 1 sec of brain activity  in short, it took a LOT of power to try and copy a short period of brain connectivity ▯ Nervous system--> Central and Peripheral  Central: Brain & spinal cord  Peripheral--> Sensory and Motor components o Motor: Visceral & Somatic systems *full table of relationships between systems- fig. 1.10* ▯ Organizing Principle  genes-->proteins-->cells-->circuits-->systems/behavior  ~6000 genes expressed solely in brain; ~6000 genes not expressed in brain; overlap of ~8000 genes in brain/not in brain ▯ Cell Theory  cell as a unit of structure/function in all living organisms o ~1665 by Hooke ▯ Neurons  polarized and compartmentalized o electrical difference across the cell membrane o different components for different functions  cell body, axon, dendrite  send electrical signals o by spreading an action potential o communicate through synapses  post-mitotic o after completion of fetal development, no mitosis or cell division  ~100 billion neurons ▯ Reticular vs. Neuron Theory  reticular: continuous nervous system  neuron: made of individual, separable units  Golgi- 1873 stained brain tissue (w/ silver dichromate) and found few black-stained cells o conclusion: reticular theory o method to study neuronal morphology  Santiago Ramon/ Cajal o customized golgi stain; studied many neuron types o conclusion: neuron theory ▯ Lots of different modern techniques for tracing neurons  i.e. fluorescent proteins, injectable tracers, viral vectors, etc. ▯ Synapses  Sherrington-1897 named areas of contact btw. neurons "synapses" o CNS: synapse, but PNS: junction  Electrical and chemical  gap junctions btw. neurons let small molecules pass through o i.e. Potassium, Calcium, etc.  MANY different kinds o named according to type of connectivity  i.e. axo-dendritic, axo-axonal, NMJ, etc. ▯ Neural Circuit  interconnected neurons that can regulate their activity  i.e. knee-jerk reflex o fig. 1.7 ▯ Shapes of neurons  MANY different shapes o i.e. retinal ganglion, retinal bipolar, pyramidal, etc.  fig. 1.2 o Classified by:  location in the body  morphology  neurochemical characteristics  electrophysiological criteria  type of connectivity  type of expressed genes  many more... ▯ Other notes: in-class exercises conducted ▯ HW: read Ch.1 & pgs. 717-722, 728-735 ▯ Glial Cells (aka. Neuroglia)  non-neuronal cells o Virchow- 1859 saw it as "nerve glue" holding neurons together in CNS o MANY functions:  myelinate  insulate  support structures  role in immunity, etc. ▯ Myelination  white matter  myelin o coating around axons; lipid-enriched o allows fast travel of impulses  "saltatory conduction": higher conduction speed in myelinated neurons as action potentials jump through each node of ranvier o CNS: oligodendrocyte (myelinates many axons) o PNS: Schwann cell (myelinates single axon) ▯ PNS Glia  Schwann cells o are both myelinating and non-myelinating o non-myelinating cells bundle axons together in Remak bundles o can myelinate 1 axon OR ensheath (bundle together) many o myelinating cell generates 1 myelin segment for 1 axon o Nodes of Ranvier: spaces of unmyelinated axon in-between myelinating Schwann cells o damage to axon causes Schwann cells to lose myelin, phagocytize, help re-myelinate  Satellite cells  Enteric glia ▯ CNS Glia *morphology of all cells- fig. 1.5*  Astrocytes o can ensheath synapse o end-feet typically around blood vessels, neurons, ependyma, pia o Reactive astrocytosis/gliosis: injury to CNS--> phagocytize, multiply, form glial scar o regulate:  homeostasis of ions, blood flow, synapses, metabolism  Microglia o mediate immune response o feel/sense environment o injury-->phagocytize, clear debris  Radial Glia  Ependymal Cells o line ventricular surface of brain o help CSF flow w/ microvilli & cilia o NO tight junctions- CSF can flow through  Endothelial Cells o make up BBB o tight junctions- physical barrier o involved in diseases like Parkinson's, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), etc.  MS video: ▯ Ventricular System/CSF  Ventricles in brain filled w/ cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)  CSF produced in choroid plexuses (secreted by ependymal cells) o encases brain/spinal cord  ventricle-->cerebral aqueduct-->central canal-->subarachnoid plexus-->dural sinuses (absorbed here) o fig. A23, A22 ▯ Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)  helps closely regulate what goes in and out of the brain  lots of blood vessels in brain ▯ ▯ *know anatomic coordinates/planes*; general anatomy of nervous system (fig. A2) ▯ ▯ Brodmann maps (cytoarchitectonic)  Brodmann (a neuroanatomist)-1909 divided brain into more than 40 parts; used Nissi staining to see differences in structure ▯ Organization of Brain  Forebrain o Diencephalon o Telencephalon  Midbrain o Mesencephalon  Hindbrain o metencephalon o myelencephalon ▯ Telencephalon/Forebrain/Cerebrum  interpret/direct voluntary tasks  cerebral cortex- outermost layer w/ motor, sensory,& association areas  Broca's/Wernicke's- language/comprehension of it o only in left hemisphere  Hippocampus-memory (especially that of spatial info.) ▯ Diencephalon  Thalamus-dual lobed, grey matter cells o relay center of sensory info. between spinal cord & cerebrum  Hypothalamus- regulate voluntary behaviors o regulate pituitary gland hormones  Pituitary Gland- endocrine hormones  Pineal Gland- Melatonin/circadian rhythm ▯ Mesencephalon/Metencephalon/Myelencephalon  Mes. o Tectum- process auditory/visual input o Tegmentum- process sensorimotor/pain input  Met. o Pons- relays sensory motor input o Reticular formation- sleep/wake cycle o Cerebellum- balance, learning of motor skills  Myel. o Medulla- heart rate, breathing, basic life functions ▯ -in spinal cord, white matter on OUTside, gray on INside ▯ -afferent vs. efferent neurons  afferent: ahhh! (when you sense a sharp pin or hot stove)  efferent: effect (what are you going to do about it? take your hand away) ▯ Visceral Motor System  Sympathetic- "fight or flight" o thoraco-lumbar o 2nd stage neurons far from target organ  Parasympathetic- "rest and digest" o cranio-sacral o 2nd stage neurons near target organ ▯ Enteric Nervous System  regulate GI tract, pancreas, gallbladder o including movement and secretion  autonomous function o but influenced by sympa./parasympa. actions  LOTS of neurons in gut wall ▯ *understand how to map cerebral cortex in terms of function* *understand how to read/interpret brain atlases* ▯ *learn cranial nerves I-XII* ▯ ▯ Other notes: in-class exercises conducted ▯ HW: read ch. 2


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