Note 18 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
Note 18 for ECOL 406R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Lecture 18 03 Nov 2003 Chapter 9 Aquatic Ecosystems Student Presentations Conservation Biology ECOL 406R506R University of Arizona Fall 2003 Kevin Bonine 1 Aquatic Ecosystems CH9 2 Thank you cards 3 Syllabus Shuffle Bob Steidl back one class 1 Readings for Wed SDCP Overview of Reserve Design Listed Species Reserve Chapter 9 group presentations Monday 8 minute highlights presentation 2 min QnA board or overhead or powerpoint late Sunday Pages 230234 Amy Tendick Galia Bobman Aurora Fabry Wood Leonides Corral 234238 Ben Joslin Andrea Vasquez Bridget Barker Louise Misztal 239243 Christopher Deegan Michael Gilliland JD Friedrichs 243248 Dana Backer Cori Carveth Sarah Hartwell Jenna Ramsey 248255 Erica Sontz Meghan Jarvie Ginny Newsome Linh Nguyen 255264 Maeveen Behan Justin Dodds Lauren Merin 230234 Tendick Bobman FabryWood Corral 234238 Joslin Vasquez Barker Misztal Conservation Challenges in Freshwater Habitats Eutrophication Acidi cation Habitat Alteration 7 Invasive plant species 7 Invasive invertebrates 7 Invasive vertebrates Conservation Challenges of Freshwater Habitat The Issues Eutrophication Acidi cation Habitat Alteration by NIS s Plant Animal Eutrophication 0 Natural process of the aging of a lake 0 In a young lake the water is cold and clear and supports little life 0 Streams drain into the lake introducing nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus which encourage the growth of aquatic organisms o The lake39s fertility increases and organic remains begin to be deposited on the lake bottom Eutrophication Silt and organic debris increase on lake bottom lake becomes shallower and warmer less oxygen Warmwater organisms supplant those that thrive in a cold environment Marsh plants take root in the shallows and begin to fill in the original lake basin and the lake gives way to a bog and finally into land Depending on climate size of the lake and other factors the natural aging of a lake may span thousands of years Eutrophication o Pollutants from man39s activities can radically accelerate the natural aging process 0 Lakes have been severely eutrophied by sewage agricultural and industrial wastes Eutrophication Primarily from increased nitrates and phosphates which act as plant nutrients Stimulate the growth of algae Cause unsightly scum and unpleasant odors Reduction of dissolved oxygen which is vital to other aquatic life Other pollutants flowing into a lake may poison whoe populations of fish Decomposing remains further deplete the water39s dissolved oxygen content Pollutants o In 1996 the EPA reported to Congress in the National Water Quality Inventory Approximately 40 of the nation39s surveyed lakes rivers and estuaries were too polluted for such basic uses as drinking supply fishing and swimming The pollutants include grit asbestos phosphates and nitrates mercury lead caustic soda and other sodium compounds sulfur and sulfuric acid oils and petrochemicals Pollutants Manufacturing plants pour off undiluted corrosives poisons and noxious byproducts The construction industry discharges slurries of gypsum cement abrasives metals and poisonous solvents A pervasive group of contaminants is polychlorinated biphenyl PCB components of lubricants plastic wrappers and adhesives Hot water discharged by factories and power plants causes thermal pollution lower oxygen Acidi cation Hydrogen sul de NOX and 802 from coal burning for electricity Nitrous oxide from car exhaust Combine with water to form sulfuric and nitric acid Acidi cation Rain is slightly acidic Buffering by carbonates some freshwater systems are more susceptible to acidification High acidity affects reproduction of fish amphibians and invertebrates Direct mortality Change in chemical reactions metallic ions may precipitate out of solution Acidi cation can happen rapidly pH from 7 to 4 in 24 hour period in Scotland during heavy rain massive fish kill Habitat Alteration By Nonindigenous Species Aquatic Enviroments Vulnerability Recent disturbance Predators absent Effective Competitors absent Invasion by Aquatic Plants 1 Introduction Usually by humans 2 Dispersal occurs after survival and reproduction 3 Adaptation via selection and establishment 4 Colonization Eurasian Water Milfoil Reproduces vegetatively Often transported by Human activity 0 Reproduces Rapidly f 1 Furslunwmuml o r I i V 7 mammarch w cva m mnma L j 139 Distribution in the United States M rio h Ilums icatum rangeestahlished m EUSGS scans with recotds Apnl 2003 states without records Other Aquatic Invaders 1 Purple Loosestrife Chokes out natural vegetation in shallow water 2 Water hyacinth forms dense mats in deep water Animal NIS s in Freshwater Properties High reproductive rates Wide environmental tolerances Large dispersal distances 3 Examples 7 quot The Nile Perch Lates niloticus The demise of the Haplochromis spp of cichlid fish 1 Take Home Lesson Managers must consider that if there are chemical alterations to a system or a nonindigenous species enters a system habitat management and conservation strategies may have to be fundamentally altered to preserve biodiversity Van Dyke 2003 pg 23 8 239243 Deegan GHMand F ed chs Conserving Aquatic Habitats Managing Sedimentation amp Eutrophieation Eumllghl Ph 39sl h rus fcrllriacg ml gamma 39 aqum plan1s 7quot N if I i In 3913 Siama anlmala die hwam in Incl n1 Iowan yummy The Culprits Us surprise Primary Cause Erosion modern agricultural runoff urban sewage amp waste disposal land development impermeability Sociopolitical causes need sociopolitical remedies We must enact laws amp policies to Reduce chemical fertilizer use Remove compounds from urban discharge Reduce agricultural amp landscaping erosion F39HCISF39HDHUS IN TONS Urban Abatement no1 130 150 140 120 100 am EIII 4I EIII El I l State I mauldater rE tl iG D I an USE Inf ph sphate IEIIATTAHDDCHEE detergem RIVER DDWNETR EA39I1 l 39 OF ATLAquotTA Ud mar CHATTAHCICICHEE rEtriC UD39lf RIVER UPSTREAM R 59 39 CIF ATLANTA EEEWE 393 I39ng 539 I3939 39IIII39quotquotquot I I I I I I i I I I I I m D m Urban Abatement no2 1quotEm I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1503 513E I mandatory L433 raticim F39HCISF39HCIFEUS r an use3f 39 JE39I39 LOAD IN pl39nEphaE mm WAETEWATE L dE ETEEH S EIIII PHDSPHDHUS IN TONS EIII quot quot3939 uWW 43 WASTEWATEH Etncunn an usean an DISCHARGE ph phate 1 EmergeI15 an I I I I II I I I I II I I I I E E E wn HE DISCHARGE IN MILLICINS CIF 25 ED 15 1D 5 GALLDNS F39EFI DAT Restoration Dredging Chemistry Biomanipulation Dredging I Remove amp Purify Contaminated Sediments Chemistry Riplox method Oxidize sediment surface to precipitate out phosphorus Additional reactions raise 02 levels stabilize pH amp encourage denitrifying bacteria in the sediment to release excess nitrate as gas into the atmosphere Bioremediation un lghl FMEFHQTUS 39FEI39IHiIQS ShirlIII aunt1g Iraquaglc gamma H 3 Emma anlmala Elina Mama 0 lack13139 Imusn Bioremediation continued Alternative Stable States Tlll llillilll is balanced Ill Nutrient inputs Fish populations Maerophyte amp Periphytie algal populations 243248 Backer Ca rveth Hartwell Ramsey Legislation and Management for Freshwater Environments Sarah Jenna Cori and Dana Monday November 3 2003 The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act Most signi cant legislation protecting streams and rivers Introduced in 1968 What is it Under this act a stream or section of a stream is designated as Wild and scenic Protected from any action by any federal agency that would adversely affect its water quality Problems 1990 Less than 2 of US streams were deemed suf cient to merit protection under this act This means that less than 100000km out of 52 million km s are protected San Pedro River A and Water Pollution Control Act 1 972 Amendment to the Clean Water Act Directed EPA to restore and maintain the physical chemical and biological integrity of the nation s waters and to enhance all forms of aquatic life A more biologically oriented approach to protecting the nations waters Problems Only chemical ll standards enforced l 7 Does not ensure that entire ecosystem is functional 7 Many impacts that degrade aquatic systems are not detected by chemical monitoring Creng Creek Arum Indices of Biotic Integrity 1B1 Ecologically based measurements of water quality A particular taxon ie sh is rated and scored based on 3 different attribute groups Species Richness and Composition 0 ieNumber and identity of benthic species Trophic Composition 0 ie Percentage of omnivores Fish abundance and Condition 0 ie Number of individuals with disease n damage and skeletal anomalies IBI s Continued Site scored and assigned an integrity class ranking Total IBI Score Integrity Class of Site Attributes 5860 Excellent Comparable to best situation w out human disturbance 4852 Good Species richness below expected 4044 Fair Signs of deteriorationskewed trophic structure 2834 Poor Growth rates and condition factors depressed 1222 Very Poor Few sh present most introduced species Advantages Focuses on distinct attributes of the system Inexpensive Simple and sensitive to ecological change Incorporates professional ecological opinion International and National Legislation for Wetlands Wetlands were one of the rst cases in which international legislation focused on the protection of an ecosystem instead of a species The Ramsar Convention was the rst global conservation convention to focus on the wetlands ecosystem The convention obligates its signers to identify and designate at least one wetland in their country as a wetland of international importance and to establish wetland nature reserves Canada s federal policy on wetland conservation is one of the best national examples of implementing the ideals of Ramsar and has experienced remarkable success The Canadian policy articulates strategies for sustainable use and management of the nation s wetlands Provides for the maintenance of overall wetland function Enhances and rehabilitates degraded wetlands Recognizes wetland functions in planning management and economic decision making in all federal programs Secures and protects wetlands of national importance Uses wetlands in a sustainable manner Allows no net loss of wetlands on federal lands and waters The US has designed a number of legislation acts to address wetland conservation in an act to increase preservation and restoration of these areas The 1985 Food Security Act aka Swampbuster is designed to stop the process of draining wetlands in private agricultural lands Denies most US Department of Agriculture bene ts to farmers who drain wetlands on their land Creates an eligibility requirement for farmers to receive Administration loans and other bene ts Wetland Reserve Program WRP Provides for payment of subsidies to farmers who remove oroplands from production in former wetland areas and to reestablish the land as wetlands To enroll in WRP the landowner s plan must include drainage alterations and the establishment of marsh plants on the enrolled site Other examples of US programs or acts implemented to protect and preserve wetlands Clean Water Act Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamps Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act Wetlands Loan Act Land and Water Conservation Fund Water Bond Program Executive Order 11988 Floodplain Management Executive Order 11990 Protection of Wetlands Coastal Zone Management Act 0 Paymentinkind program Despite conservation efforts wetlands loss in the US still continues in part because There is a lack of agency coordination in wetland conservation Most legislation does not regulate private activity on private lands cause of majority of wetland loss Some US legislation still encourages the draining of wetlands For example the US taX code encourages farmers to drain and clear wetlands by providing taX deductions for many types of development activities Setting Priorities for Conservation in Freshwater Habitats WWFUS criteria for assessment of lakes and streams v v 1 Biological distinctiveness 2 Conservation status 39 Gives priority to regions that contain systems that contribute to biodiversity l Globally outstanding 2 Continentally outstanding 3 Bioregionally outstanding 4 Nationally important Priority declines as the importance of the system decreases Rankings 1 Critical intact habitat reduced to small isolated patches small probability of persistence over the next 10 years Without immediate action 11 Endangered intact habitat of isolated patches with low to medium probability of persistence over the next 10 years Without immediate or continuing protection Ill Vulnerable intact habitat remaining in large and small areas persistence is likely over the next 10 years with protection and restoration IV Relatively Stable disturbance and alteration in certain areas but overall stable external practices unlikely to impact habitat V Relatively Intact minimally disturbed RuleBased Models Used to determine if habitat loss or environmental change are random Evaluate possible mechanisms of distributional changes in a species Disappearance of Frogs Isolation model due to distances between Changes in distribution ponds Succession model Changes in distribution due to altered vegetation in and around ponds Null model Changes in distribution were random Results of the study showed that the Succession Model was correct Frogs could best be preserved by managing the vegetation Rulebased models require minimal data don t necessarily need to prove that changes in vegetation cause frog declines only that managing vegetation may help frogs more than another type of plan 248255 Sontz Jarvie Newsome Nguyen Marine Habitats and Biodiversity Mark Er fmamn httpWwwucmpberkeleyeduvertebratescoelacanthcoelacanthshtml Marine Habitats Intertidal C0ral Reefs Pelaglc oEstuaries 39 Benthic Seagrass Beds benthic Abyssal Guast I Coastal Ocean Namrter I Pelagic Enviranment http wwwonrnavymilfocusoceanregionsbluewater1 htm Coral Reefs Shallow tropical water 0 200 N and S of equator IndoPaci c West tlntic Red Sea httpwwwreefrelief orgCoral VnZOForest maphtml Coral Reef Regions of the World 1 lndoPaci c Red Sea WesternAtlantic Coral Reefs httpwwwph0tolibn0aa g0Vreefreef2584htm Structurecoral polyps secrete calcium Nutrientserosion of reefs releases calcium Water qualitysponges lter water Lightcoral forms in well lit waters favorable for photosynthesis Benthos Ocean bottom excluding the deepest areas Sand silt and decomposing organic matter Often dark Often cold Nutrient I39iCh httpWwwphotolibnoaagovnurpnurOOS12htm Seagrass Beds 15 decline in past decade Flowering plants Food resource nursery habitat Prevent erosion Reduce wave impact Filter water http wwwphotolibnoaa govsanctuarysanCOZI lhtm Hydrothermal Vents Midocean ridges tectonic plates Chemosynthetic bacteria Huge taxonomic diversity 0 Old Relict species httpwwwwhoieduinstitutesdoeigeneralmissionhtm Metapopl atlonS Whale Fall Communities Succession of communities Decomposition of bones yields hydrogen sul de DNA analyses of fauna Implications for httpwwwnu1pnoaagov Spotlight20Articleswhaleshtml Maj or threats to Marine Habitats 1 Exploitation of commercial species 2 Direct destruction of marine habitats 3 Indirect degradation of marine habitats l Exploitation of Commercial Species Maximum Sustainable Yield MSY Used to manage sheries as renewable resources Calculated based on catch per unit effort Reproductive surplus was the only requirement for a sustainable shery Not used in sheries anymore because it caused depletion in sh stocks l Exploitation of Commercial Species Current Estimates 70 of the world s sh stocks are exploited or depleted 45 of all species are overharvested l Exploitation of Commercial Species Overharvested Populations Show widely ranging cycles of high and low abundance Do not necessarily show a strong correlation between recruitment and number of adults present Do not necessarily show advanced warning of population decline l Exploitation of Commercial Species Effects Removal of a prey species may reduce the populations of predators Ex Decline of sea otters in CA following over shing Ofabalones 2 Removal of predator species disrupts equilibria of prey species l Exploitation of Commercial Species Effects cont 3 The take of non targeted species contributes to exploitation problerns Ex In Shrimp sheries the discarded by catch can exceed that of the targeted catch 2 Direct destruction of Marine Habitats Examples of Direct Destruction The use of explosives to harvest coral reef species One blast can devastate 1000m3 Trawling nets destroy complex and diverse communities on the ocean oor gure 915 255264 Behan Dodds Me n END
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