Class Note for ECOL 302 at UA
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Variation in the Physical Environment Educational Goals You should be familiar with latitudinal gradients in temperature and precipitation and their causes global patterns of seasonal variability in temperature and precipitation and their causes Atmospheric and oceanic circulation Patterns of seasonality of precipitation in the tropics and their causes Effects of topography Soil formation Background Climate is perhaps the most important element of environmental variation Global Patterns in Temperature and Precipitation V th increasing latitude 2 gradients Why Global Patterns in Temperature and Precipitation kower angle greater area Temporal Variation in climate with Latitude Temporal patterns are predictable diurnal lunar and seasonal cycles Earth s rotational axis is tilted 235o relative to its path around the sun leading to Temporal Variation in climate with latitude Summer solstice lune 21 Winter solstice December 22 Antarctic Circle Figure 42 Temporal Variation in climate with latitude Difference l0 0 lo 20 so Temperature quot0 Figure 43 Hadley cells principal patterns in atmospheric circulation Hadley cells principal patterns in atmospheric circu lation Hadley cells of air circulation Sun heats air at equator HadIey cells of air circulation on Tropical rain forest Equator Sun heats air a equator Latitudinal Climate Belts Set up Dry and Wet Areas w u 5 KEY Annual Precipitation Under 15 cm Over I50 cm II Deserts Tmpical and suhu opical rain forests E Polar deserts ITempemte rain forests Surface V nds Surface V nds 30 N Hm desem Nonheastades 0quot Equator Hut desem 1 30quot5 J Figure 46 Ocean currents redistribute heat and moisture Western coasts have Cold currents Ocean currents redistribute heat and moisture Seasonal Variation in Climate Seasonal progression of sun s zenith causes familiar patterns oftemperature Intertropical convergence also migrates seasonally Seasonality of Rainfall in Tropics Greatest seasonality 180 M rida 20 N 39 0 M i I I I I I i Rio de Janiero 20 S Millimeter of ram Bogota 0 Topography can modify environment on local scale steep slopes bottomlands Sfacing vs Nfacing slopes Topography and Local Precipitation Sierra 200 Great 4000 A iaasin loo 3000 Four I 50 Central hills Valley I I 39l 0 n o 0 50 100 150 200 Kilometers Figure 47 Average annual precipitation cm West CH Merriam Transikinn zone Figure 420 Alpine zone Upper Sonoran zone Why are there deserts Climate and Soil Climate influences soil development 9 Soils form as a function of climate parent material time vegetation and other organisms local topography Soils have structure horizons a b Soil Formation Shows role of in creating variety of environments for life Significance Global environmental patterns result of differential input of solar irradiation in different regions and redistribution of heat energy by winds and ocean currents Seasonality from latitudinal movement of solar equator Topography and geology superimpose local environmental variation on more general climatic patterns
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