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AMH 2020 Week 2

by: Jocelyn

AMH 2020 Week 2 AMH 2020

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About this Document

All you need to know on Reconstruction.
American History 1877-Present
Dr. Noll
Class Notes
American History




Popular in American History 1877-Present

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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jocelyn on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH 2020 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Noll in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see American History 1877-Present in History at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Monday, January 11, 2016 AMH 2020 Week 2 Reconstruction: What is the key issue? - Amendments - Still in 2010, 2 Ls are still important LAND AND LABOR April 1865: Civil War is over and Abraham Lincoln will be dead in a week - Now let’s put the nation back together: Reconstruction - What are we reconstructing? 1. The South physically because it has been decimated from four years of war i.e. Richmond and Columbia look like they’ve been bombed. Infrastructure and banking is destroyed economically and physically. 2. Restore the nation: bring back those 11 states that seceded. What political things do we have to do to get them back into the nation? - The North is going to amend the constitution to prevent this stuff from happening again 3. Slavery: by the end of the civil war the war was being fought for two reasons: to restore the nation and to end slavery. Now with the war over, slavery is done. 4 million slaves are now free. We don't know what they are, and we don't know if they are going to be full fledged citizens. In 1865, slaves are worth 2.5 billion dollars which is worth 40 billion dollars in 2016 - Citizens have: • The right to vote • Property Serve of jury • • Legally marry • Right to quit a job that they don't like 1 Monday, January 11, 2016 - Where do we reconstruct? • Washington D.C. • On the ground in the South - What do black people want? • Land and Labor - How are they going to get it? The government is going to grant land to them • • The government wants to punish slaveowners to prevent secession - Why do they feel they deserve to have this land? • They worked on it! • 40 acres and mule and they’ll be set for life! • They made Carnegie’s factory what is was! - But first, • The government has to take away the land • Grant it to foreigners - We can’t do that because… • Capitalism: free market Land is not granted to African Americans • • About 10% of African Americans did manage to scrape up their own money • Land = independence (what about the other 90%) - African Americans pushed for having the right to vote to elect people that will help accomplish their goals - They also want the ability to move around - Why would you move? • Economic opportunity 2 Monday, January 11, 2016 • Maybe people in the North are more accepting of you as a black person • Looking for family members because they’ve been sold all over the place AKA personal relations - Why don’t whites want that? • If you stay on the plantation where you were, you won’t be my slave because that’s not legal but they can still use you for labor • When blacks do move, whites think they are moving because now that they're free they think that they'd be too lazy to work and that they'd only be able to work by force • Whites talk about blacks leaving in terms of vagrancy: moving about from place to place with no ties - Lincoln (Northern Republican) is assassinated in April 1865: new president is Andrew Johnson who is a Southern Democrat (they were basically opposites and never talked) • Even though he stays in the union, there is something more profound: he is a racist. He doesn't think that blacks are capable of owning their own land and participating in government. • The only thing he knows is that blacks aren't slaves but he doesn't want them to have any input. - So what’s next? • 13th Amendment: Slavery is to be abolished • Johnson has allowed these states to come back and reconstruct their governments • Southern states apply to be in the Union again in December of 1865 • Alexander Stevens elected by Georgia as a representative in Congress: FORMER VICE PRESIDENT OF THE CONFEDERACY LOL awkward OMFG WTF • Although slavery is abolished, we are going to make laws in our states that bring African Americans as close to slavery as possible • Black Codes are established in 1865: although we recognize that slavery is abolished, we are NOT going to recognize that African Americans are citizens. They are trying to keep the same system as before without slavery. 3 Monday, January 11, 2016 • Northern politicians go crazy. Andrew Johnson says that slavery is abolished and states are back in the union, so lets move on. But African Americans are still lacking. • Fight: Johnson vs. Republicans - Black Codes are illegal according to Northern politicians. African Americans need education and help and finding their spouse. - Freedmen’s Bureau: setting up schools and job placement places and a way fro Blacks to get help. Congress overrides Johnson’s veto. - Congress establishes a new form of Reconstruction in the South: MILITARY RECONSTRUCTION: 1867 • Congress overrides veto again, and in 1868, Congress impeaches him • The Senate tries him but he is NOT found guilty • Congress now has the power in the South and is going to do 2 things: - 14th Amendment 1868: gives citizenship and equal protection and due process - 15th Amendment 1870: voting can not be abridged by color - AKA the Reconstruction Amendments including 13th: Abolish Slavery - WHITE Southerners are pissed 4 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 Day 2 Overview Reconstruction - Land and Labor • Origins of sharecropping - Politics and Black Population - White Responses - End of Reconstruction: Compromise of 1877 - Beginning of Redemption and Jim Crow - The Blacks are guaranteed these opportunities/amendments from federal presence • Troops/Federal soldier(s The federal presence antagonizes whites and gives black people hope) • Freedsmen’s Bureau: provides job opportunities - Sharecropping: eventually will become an institution of oppression towards blacks but arises where blacks have some opportunity and solves both people’s problems. White gets blacks to work for them and The South begin to grow cotton. (King +) because it is going to be grown in places it was never grown before. • When reckoning day comes, (cotton arises) they take the share of their cotton and give it to the owner of the big house and then they get paid • Whites get to have blacks work their land - 1860: under control of the owner of the big house - 1870: no longer live in quarters in communal areas and each black community has a part of land belonging to them to farm/rent - If cotton prices are down, how can we make some money by growing cotton? • Grow more cotton • The more cotton we grow, the less it’s worth • Ex slaves are going to make the least amount of money 5 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 - White Southerners would say what? • Let’s get out of growing cotton because it’s not making as much money - But why do they stay in this business? • They’d still rather be controlling the lives of African Americans - By the 1880s, the system becomes systematically controlled by blacks - If you get into debt, you can’t: Buy land • • African Americans remain not slaves but tied to the land • During this system 10% actually attain land - What else gives blacks rights besides economic independence? • Voting Reconstruction 1865-1877 - Blacks are voting! 70-80% of all eligible because to them it matters - They are voting Republican: the party that freed the slaves: associated with Lincoln (and Jesus of course) - Who makes up Southern Republicans? • Freedmen • Poor, white southerners • Northern whites that come down to the South after the Civil War - Why would they come down? To implement their ideas! Idealistic: to help blacks. - Southerners land was destroyed so they see opportunity to buy their land: economic opportunity. “I’ve got money and they need money.” Northerner - Poor Southerners are seen as traitors to their race: Scalawags because they are helping blacks - Northern whites are known as Carpetbaggers 6 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 - African Americans are winning and they are holding office • Dozens of African Americans are holding power in many states locally and nationally although none are governors. Specifically positions dealing with education. - In Florida, ex slave Josiah T. Walls serves Florida in Washington D.C. in 1870-1876 - Mississippi has 2 Black Senators: • Black man, former slave, Hiram Revels IRONIC because the last person to hold that seat was Jefferson Davis (AKA • President of the Confederacy) - Guy moves from Philadelphia to Tallahassee to become Florida’s Education Secretary: Jonathan Gibbs - What do you need to build up an education system from the ground up? • MONEY - How are they going to get it? • TAXES • The problem is that people don't like to pay taxes, especially if you’re a wealthy white Southerner • Whites feel that this is money badly spent and Whites in the Democratic party begin to try to remove Republicans from power by: - WINNING THE ELECTIONS - But they can’t do that with the federal presence in the South - As Reconstruction continues, Northerners support begins to diminish AKA WHITE SUPPORT WANES • They already sent people to the South • They already won a war • They passed 13, 14, and 15th Amendments 7 Wednesday, January 13, 2016 • “We’ve done everything we could. Now we can leave. OUR JOB IS OVER.” - How can we gain control? (Southern Democrats) • Instill fear - April 1873 in Colfax, Louisiana: Colfax Massacre • Government was overthrown by Southern Democrats and takes the black community and destroys it • White southerners believe that the blacks got what they deserve and that things are back to normal (blacks at the bottom) - September 18, 1876 in Hamburg, NC: Hamburg Massacre • 7 Senators are killed, one of them is white • Only a monument exists for the white guy because he died “to defend Anglo-Saxon ideals” - By 1876, every Southern state except South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida are returned back to Democratic rule - 1876 Election: Democrat: Tilden vs Republican: Hayes • Tilden wins popular vote • We aren’t sure who wins the election because of those 3 states - Commission is held to decide the electoral votes for these states - In March, 8 to 7 the commission decides that they all voted Republican for the election, causing Hayes to win: WHITE SOUTHERNERS ARE PISSED - TO COMPENSATE: • ALL STATES ARE CONTROLLED BY DEMOCRATIC RULE • NO SOLDIERS • BLACKS ARE SCREWED - What is this time now called? Redemption for White Democrats… 8


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