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Nutrition and Metabolism (NUTR 4550) Carbohydrate Regulation PowerPoint 1 Week 1 Notes

by: Victoria Hills

Nutrition and Metabolism (NUTR 4550) Carbohydrate Regulation PowerPoint 1 Week 1 Notes NUTR 4550

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Here are the class notes from the first week of class on the first carbohydrate regulation power point. It includes figures 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, and 12.6 from the Biochemical, Physiological, and...
Nutrition and Metabolism
Dr. Elliot Jesch
Class Notes
nutrition, metabolism, Clemson, Jesch, NUTR, 4550, Carbohydrate, regulation




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Hills on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 4550 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Elliot Jesch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 116 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Metabolism in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 01/18/16
Clemson  University   Spring  2016   Nutrition  and  Metabolism  (NUTR  4550)   Unit  1:  Regulation     Carbohydrate  Regulation  PowerPoint  1   1/8/2016   Week  1       Slide  1:  Figure  12.2     • This  slide  is  looking  at  insulin  and  regulation   • Glucose  is  shown  in  the  liver  on  the  left   • Liver:   -­‐ Used  for  energy  storage   -­‐ One  of  the  locations  for  energy  metabolism   -­‐ Uses  GLUT  2   -­‐ The  liver  is  not  an  insulin  dependent  tissue  for  glucose  uptake   -­‐ There  are  still  insulin  receptors  on  the  liver  that  will  have  signaling,  but   when  insulin  is  secreted,  the  liver  is  not  stimulated  to  take  up  glucose   from  a  glucose  transporter  (Meaning  the  liver  can  take  up  glucose  via   GLUT  2  with  or  without  the  presence  of  insulin)   • In  any  tissue:  The  first  event  that  occurs  when  glucose  enters  the  cell  is   phosphorylation  via  glucokinase  or  hexokinase  that  then  converts  glucose   to  glucose-­‐6-­‐phosphate  (This  is  the  first  step  in  glycolysis)     • Free  glucose  means  that  glucose  is  not  phosphorylated   • Sensors  on  the  liver  will  drive  up  the  activity  of  hexokinase/glucokinase  in   order  to  convert  more  glucose  into  glucose-­‐6-­‐phosphate     • When  consuming  a  meal  under  any  circumstances,  one  is  able  to  consume   much  more  energy  at  the  time  of  meal  than  is  needed  in  the  body   • Example:  If  you  consume  a  1000  calorie  meal,  and  60%  of  the  calories  come   from  carbohydrate,  glucose  will  go  into  cells  and  be  phosphorylated  and   continue  to  be  metabolized  down  to  pyruvate  (Glycolysis  process)   • From  pyruvate,  it  is  first  important  to  ensure  that  the  cell  and  tissue  has   enough  energy;  Therefore,  some  pyruvate  will  be  used  to  make  ATP  through   the  TCA  cycle  and  electron  transport  chain  while  the  rest  of  the  pyruvate  will   go  into  storage  pathway  of  fatty  acid  synthesis  (Via  pyruvate  à  Acetyl  CoA)   • While  the  excess  amount  of  glucose  from  the  carbohydrate  will  be  stored  via   fatty  acid  synthesis,  a  smaller  amount  of  the  excess  glucose  will  be  used  in   glycogenesis  for  glycogen  storage  in  the  liver  and  muscle  cells   • Liver  glycogen  is  not  depleted  often,  but  it  is  depleted  when  an  energy   deficiency  drives  the  need  for  glucose  utilization     -­‐ Seen  in  dieting  with  low  carbohydrate  intake   -­‐ Seen  in  high  intensity  exercise  that  calls  for  anaerobic  respiration,  which   also  requires  glucose  utilization  and  will  cause  the  breakdown  of  liver   glycogen     -­‐ Low  intensity  exercise  is  the  opposite  and  will  primarily  rely  on  fatty   acids  as  the  energy  source  à  Includes  walking,  jogging,  etc.     • Pancreas:  Insulin  effect     -­‐ GLUT  2  is  also  used  as  a  glucose  transporter  so  the  pancreas  and  its  beta   cells  must  be  able  to  sense  glucose  flooding  in  from  the  diet   -­‐ Glucose  enter  the  blood  stream  à  Pancreas  à  Beta  cell  phosphorylates   glucose  to  glucose-­‐6-­‐phosphate  and  produces  insulin  to  be  secreted     -­‐ ATP:ADP  ratio  increases     • Once  insulin  has  been  secreted  from  the  pancreas,  skeletal  muscle  and   adipose  tissue  (2  tissues  with  glucose-­‐sensitive  transporters)  use  the  GLUT   4  glucose  transporter  that  is  sensitive  to  insulin  to  take  up  glucose  into  the   cell  to  be  then  phosphorylated  to  glucose-­‐6-­‐phosphate  via   hexokinase/glucokinase   • Insulin  up  regulates  glucose  phosphorylation     • Insulin  up  regulates  fatty  acid  synthesis  as  well     • Overall:  Insulin  is  an  anabolic  hormone;  therefore,  glucose  will  be  converted   into  fatty  acids,  glycogen,  and  insulin  will  also  stimulate  the  protein  synthesis   process   • Insulin  presence  plays  a  small  part  in  glucose  going  through  glycolysis  and   TCA  cycle     Slide  2:  Figure  12.3-­‐  Insulin  Metabolism     • Figure  is  showing  an  overview  of  insulin  and  its  stimulating  of  GLUT  4  and   glucose  uptake  in  general  (In  terms  of  skeletal  muscle  and  adipose  tissue,   for  example)   • Top  row  shows  the  fed  state     • Bottom  row  shows  the  fasted  state   • Left  column  shows  the  basal  state,  which  is  the  point  where  metabolism  is   steady     -­‐ The  nucleus  of  the  cell  produces  GLUT  4     -­‐ An  mRNA  transcript  is  then  produced  for  GLUT  4  in  order  for  it  to  be   translated  into  a  protein   -­‐ GLUT  4  vesicles  are  where  the  GLUT  4  protein  is  stored  within  the   cytoplasm  (This  means  that  GLUT  4  in  the  vesicle  is  not  functioning  as  a   glucose  transporter  at  this  point—It  would  have  to  be  embedded  in  the   plasma  membrane  to  be  an  active  glucose  transporter)   • Middle  column  shows  how  insulin  is  present  and  GLUT  4  moves  towards   the  plasma  membrane  of  the  cell   • Right  column  shows  that  the  insulin-­‐stimulated  cell  where  the  GLUT  4   protein  is  no  longer  in  the  GLUT  4  vesicle  and  is  embedded  in  the  plasma   membrane  of  the  skeletal  muscle  or  adipose  tissue  cells   • Fasted  State:  GLUT  4  mRNA  transcript  and  GLUT  4  translated  protein  is   produced  much  less  than  seen  in  the  fed  state     • Example:  Consumption  of  a  carbohydrate-­‐rich  meal  in  the  fasted  state:     -­‐ There  will  be  trouble  transporting  the  glucose  inside  the  cell     -­‐ If  one  continues  to  fast  for  a  long  period  of  time  and  then  consumes   carbohydrate,  free  glucose  will  be  circulating  in  the  blood  and  can  lead  to   diabetes     -­‐ Based  on  a  study,  if  a  person  is  starved  it  is  important  to  be  cautious   about  refeeding  the  person  à  This  may  be  a  reason  for  the  regaining  of   weight  after  dieting  (Refeeding  can  lead  to  excess  glucose  in  the  blood   and  because  the  body  wants  to  do  something  with  it,  results  of   carbohydrate  storage  in  the  form  of  fatty  acids  and  glycogen     Slide  3:  Glycolysis     • 3  Regulated  Steps  of  Glycolysis:   a. Step  1  (Glucose  à  Glucose-­‐6-­‐Phosphate  via  hexokinase/glucokinase)   b. Step  3  (Fructose-­‐6-­‐Phosphateà  Fructose-­‐1,6-­‐bisphosphate  via   phosphofructokinase-­‐1)  –  (not  main  regulated  step  of  glycolysis  though)   c. Step  9  (PEP  à  Pyruvate  via  pyruvate  kinase)  –  Involvement  of  ATP  being   generated   • Points  of  regulation  is  in  terms  of  wherever  energy  is  involved     • Glycolysis  requires  the  input  of  ATP  at  steps  1  and  3     • Glycolysis  also  produces  NADH  that  will  go  to  the  electron  transport  chain  in   the  step  involving  glyceraldehyde-­‐3-­‐phosphate  à  1,3-­‐bisphoshpoglycerate     • Pyruvate  has  different  fates  (In  terms  of  energy  production):     a) TCA  Cycle:  Occurs  because  of  pyruvate  à  acetyl  CoA  via  PDH  that  then   enters  the  TCA  cycle  (This  conversion  is  a  regulated  step  in  metabolism)   b) Fatty  Acid  Synthesis  in  time  of  excess:  Occurs  because  of  pyruvate  à   acetyl  CoA  via  PDH     c) Anaerobic  metabolism:  Convert  pyruvate  to  lactic  acid   -­‐ Key  to  regenerate  NAD+  for  the  step  in  glycolysis  involving   glyceraldehyde-­‐3-­‐phosphate  to  1,3-­‐bisphosphoglycerate  à  NAD+   regeneration  is  important  because  glycolysis  will  stop  if  NAD+  is  not   regenerated   -­‐ Also,  2  ATP  is  produced  from  (2)  pyruvate  to  lactic  acid   d) Generation  of  oxaloacetate  via  pyruvate  carboxylase  to  keep  the  TCA   cycle  running  (Having  enough  oxaloacetate  is  especially  a  concern  with   beta  oxidation  in  the  breakdown  of  fatty  acids)   • Can  funnel  in  and  out  different  compounds  in  other  pathways  in  terms  of   glycolytic  intermediates  and  products   Slide  4:  Figure  12.5-­‐  Fructose  and  Galactose  in  Glycolysis     • This  figure  is  showing  how  fructose  and  galactose  are  other  monosaccharides   other  than  glucose  that  are  able  to  be  incorporated  into  the  glycolytic   pathway   • Fructose:  Can  use  hexokinase  to  enter  glycolysis  as  fructose-­‐6-­‐phosphate   and  also  at  the  glyceraldehyde-­‐3-­‐phosphate  step     • Galactose:  Requires  a  series  of  steps  and  enzymes  in  order  to  be  converted   to  enter  glycolysis  as  glucose-­‐6-­‐phosphate   -­‐ Galactose  à  Galactose  1-­‐phosphate  via  galactokinase   -­‐ Galactose  1-­‐phosphate  à  glucose-­‐1-­‐phosphate  via  UDP-­‐glucose:   Galactose  1-­‐phosphate  uridylyltransferase   -­‐ Glucose-­‐1-­‐phosphate  à  Glucose-­‐6-­‐phosphate  via  phosphoglucomutase   • Fructose  and  galactose  together  make  up  about  10%  of  the  carbohydrates   that  a  typical  American  consumes     • Glucose  makes  up  about  80  –  90%  of  the  carbohydrates  that  a  typical   American  consumes   • Starch  is  the  majority  of  carbohydrate  that  is  consumed  by  Americans     Slide  5:  Figure  12.6-­‐  Gluconeogenesis   • Gluconeogenesis  is  the  pathway  where  glucose  is  synthesized  from  non-­‐ carbohydrate  derivatives  (Ex:  Seen  with  the  glucose-­‐alanine  cycle  where   alanine  is  converted  to  pyruvate  (alpha  keto  acid)  to  be  used  in  the  liver  to   make  glucose)   • Pathway  is  used  in  the  fasted  state     • The  primary  driver  of  using  glucose  is  red  blood  cells  (Because  they  do  not   have  mitochondria  so  they  are  entirely  anaerobic)  and  the  brain  (Can  use   lipids  but  has  a  glucose  preference)   • Gluconeogenesis  is  essentially  the  same  pathway  as  glycolysis  but  with   different  enzymes  à  Although  some  parts  of  both  pathways  overlap,  the   different  enzymes  are  crucial  in  making  carbohydrate  regulation  efficient  so   that  glycolysis  and  gluconeogenesis  operate  at  their  appropriate  times  (Fed   vs.  fasted  states)       • Fed  State:  Applies  to  glycolysis   • Fasted  State:  Applies  to  gluconeogenesis     • Regulated  Steps  in  Gluconeogenesis:   a. Beginning:  Pyruvate  à  Oxaloacetate  à  PEP     b. Fructose-­‐1,6-­‐bisphoshpate  à  fructose-­‐6-­‐phosphate  via  fructose-­‐1,6-­‐ bisphosphatase     c. Glucose-­‐6-­‐phosphatase  that  dephosphorylates  glucose-­‐6-­‐phosphate  and   yields  free  glucose            


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