First week of Intro to Geology Notes
First week of Intro to Geology Notes 100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aubree Broyles on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at Fort Hays State University taught by Kenneth R Neuhauser in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geoscience at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Intro to Geology Notes GSCI 100 Section B Spring 2016 - Section 1 Intro Presentation Geology = the study of the Earth – a science Why Geology? o Energy sources + raw materials = Examples: cell phone, computer, car o Protecting the environment o Avoiding geologic hazards = Examples: keeping people safe o Economics + Politics o Consumers + Citizens o Sustainability Approaches in Geology o Observational: field & lab Maps: Rock types, distributions, structures Microscopic investigations o Experimental: field and lab Chemical Geophysical Part of Geology o Lithosphere Rocks o Hydrosphere Water o Atmosphere Air/weather o Biosphere Biology – evolution of species o Cryosphere Frozen Majority of Earth’s Elements –Crust of the Earth o Oxygen (46%) - O o Silicon (28%) Si o Aluminum (8%) Al o Iron (6%) Fe No free oxygen comes out of Volcanoes Plate Tectonics Scientific Method o Question o Observation to collect data o Propose Hypotheses = explanations offered for a set of observations o When a hypothesis withstands many tests it is called a theory o A theory that pasts tests all the time is called a law How to learn o Listen o Take notes o Watch o Teach Day 1 of Lecture Notes – Jan. 21st Atoms, Elements, and Minerals Atoms Minerals Rocks Earth Mineral Identification o Luster Metallic or Non-Metallic o Hardness Uses a scale of hardness – depends on how the atoms are bonded together o Streak Usually for metallic minerals – rub samples on a porcelain plate to see the streak o Cleavage What happens when you break a mineral – when you break a mineral, if it has cleavage it busts into chunks of the same shape o Crystal Form (Habit) The shape that they form o Density Can be tested using acid o Color Double refraction – the light that enters a crystal, is split Asbestos – Health hazard or not? o There are different kinds – good and bad o Good = Lighter colored o Bad = The darker asbestos pieces have curlier fibers and get stuck in lungs and cause health issues Mineral o Natural occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and thus a definite atomic structure How minerals form o 1. Cooling of magma o 2. Precipitation Chemical or biochemical (ex. how the human body makes teeth, bones, etc.) o 3. In the “solid state” From tectonic rock Atoms o Nucleus Protons = + charge Neutrons = no charge o Electrons = - charge (electromagnetic nature) o Quarks + Quantum Theory – leave that to chemists and physics Why is Magnetite magnetic? o Electrons (the control it) are spinning in the same direction around the nucleus Isotopes --- Stable and Unstable o It is an atom where the nucleus contains a differing number of neutrons o The more neutrons in a nucleus, the more unstable an atom is Ion o An atom that has lost or gained electrons o Positively charged ions (loss of electron) are called cations --- T&F Question o Negatively charged ions (gain of electron) are called anions Inert Gases o Do not easily give up electrons (outer shell filled) = do not readily form solids o Helium o Neon o Argon o Kryptonite Bonding Types o Ionic bonds – electrons exchanged --- 90% of all minerals --- T&F o Covalent Bonds – Electrons shared o Metallic Bonds – electrons move freely between all atoms Good conductors o Bond strength The stronger the bond, the harder the substance – so it uses the hardness scale The other most rings of atoms with bond – its easier for 1 to move than 7 – needs 8 o Covalent Bonding = Diamond bonding o Polymorphs = same composition, different structure Carbon polymorphs = graphite + diamond Multiple Choice Question = an example of a polymorph is carbon polymorph (Graphite & diamond) o Silica-oxygen tetrahedral 4 oxygens surrounding 1 silicon Different combinations produce different structures o Isolated Tetrahedra (eg. Olivine) o Framework Silicates (eg. Quartz & feldspar) All 4 corners are shared with tetrahedrons o An XDR (X-Ray Detractor) is used to find a crystals “DNA” Other Mineral Oddities o Piezoelectricity If you put pressure on both ends of a crystal, it will transfer electricity – turned this into clocks o Pyroelectricity o Fluorescence o Phosphorescence o Triboluminescence o Ferromagnetism o Liquid crystals o Kaopectate Geophagy = the practice of eating clays – elephants and birds do this in nature and eat clays
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