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First week of Intro to Geology Notes

by: Aubree Broyles

First week of Intro to Geology Notes 100

Marketplace > Fort Hays State University > Geoscience > 100 > First week of Intro to Geology Notes
Aubree Broyles
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About this Document

Introduction and first lecture
Introduction to Geology
Kenneth R Neuhauser
Class Notes
FHSU, Fort Hays State University




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aubree Broyles on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at Fort Hays State University taught by Kenneth R Neuhauser in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geology in Geoscience at Fort Hays State University.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Intro to Geology Notes GSCI 100 Section B Spring 2016 - Section 1 Intro Presentation  Geology = the study of the Earth – a science  Why Geology? o Energy sources + raw materials = Examples: cell phone, computer, car o Protecting the environment o Avoiding geologic hazards = Examples: keeping people safe o Economics + Politics o Consumers + Citizens o Sustainability  Approaches in Geology o Observational: field & lab  Maps: Rock types, distributions, structures  Microscopic investigations o Experimental: field and lab  Chemical  Geophysical  Part of Geology o Lithosphere  Rocks o Hydrosphere  Water o Atmosphere  Air/weather o Biosphere  Biology – evolution of species o Cryosphere  Frozen  Majority of Earth’s Elements –Crust of the Earth o Oxygen (46%) - O o Silicon (28%) Si o Aluminum (8%) Al o Iron (6%) Fe  No free oxygen comes out of Volcanoes  Plate Tectonics  Scientific Method o Question o Observation to collect data o Propose Hypotheses = explanations offered for a set of observations o When a hypothesis withstands many tests it is called a theory o A theory that pasts tests all the time is called a law  How to learn o Listen o Take notes o Watch o Teach Day 1 of Lecture Notes – Jan. 21st Atoms, Elements, and Minerals  Atoms  Minerals  Rocks  Earth  Mineral Identification o Luster  Metallic or Non-Metallic o Hardness  Uses a scale of hardness – depends on how the atoms are bonded together o Streak  Usually for metallic minerals – rub samples on a porcelain plate to see the streak o Cleavage  What happens when you break a mineral – when you break a mineral, if it has cleavage it busts into chunks of the same shape o Crystal Form (Habit)  The shape that they form o Density  Can be tested using acid o Color  Double refraction – the light that enters a crystal, is split  Asbestos – Health hazard or not? o There are different kinds – good and bad o Good = Lighter colored o Bad = The darker asbestos pieces have curlier fibers and get stuck in lungs and cause health issues  Mineral o Natural occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and thus a definite atomic structure  How minerals form o 1. Cooling of magma o 2. Precipitation  Chemical or biochemical (ex. how the human body makes teeth, bones, etc.) o 3. In the “solid state”  From tectonic rock Atoms o Nucleus  Protons = + charge  Neutrons = no charge o Electrons = - charge (electromagnetic nature) o Quarks + Quantum Theory – leave that to chemists and physics  Why is Magnetite magnetic? o Electrons (the control it) are spinning in the same direction around the nucleus  Isotopes --- Stable and Unstable o It is an atom where the nucleus contains a differing number of neutrons o The more neutrons in a nucleus, the more unstable an atom is  Ion o An atom that has lost or gained electrons o Positively charged ions (loss of electron) are called cations --- T&F Question o Negatively charged ions (gain of electron) are called anions  Inert Gases o Do not easily give up electrons (outer shell filled) = do not readily form solids o Helium o Neon o Argon o Kryptonite  Bonding Types o Ionic bonds – electrons exchanged --- 90% of all minerals --- T&F o Covalent Bonds – Electrons shared o Metallic Bonds – electrons move freely between all atoms  Good conductors o Bond strength  The stronger the bond, the harder the substance – so it uses the hardness scale  The other most rings of atoms with bond – its easier for 1 to move than 7 – needs 8 o Covalent Bonding = Diamond bonding o Polymorphs = same composition, different structure  Carbon polymorphs = graphite + diamond  Multiple Choice Question = an example of a polymorph is carbon polymorph (Graphite & diamond) o Silica-oxygen tetrahedral  4 oxygens surrounding 1 silicon  Different combinations produce different structures o Isolated Tetrahedra (eg. Olivine) o Framework Silicates (eg. Quartz & feldspar)  All 4 corners are shared with tetrahedrons o An XDR (X-Ray Detractor) is used to find a crystals “DNA”  Other Mineral Oddities o Piezoelectricity  If you put pressure on both ends of a crystal, it will transfer electricity – turned this into clocks o Pyroelectricity o Fluorescence o Phosphorescence o Triboluminescence o Ferromagnetism o Liquid crystals o Kaopectate  Geophagy = the practice of eating clays – elephants and birds do this in nature and eat clays 


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