Class Note for ECOL 302 at UA
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Pathways of Elements Educational Goals To understand nutrient cycling Elemental cycles and energy flux are linked assimilatory and dissimilatory processed Water has an important role See C N P as examples Major transformationsfluxes major pools Role of microbes Energy and Elements are different Energy Elements Linked Biological Reduction and Oxidation of C O N amp S Assimilatory processes Dissimilatory processes Assimilatory and Dissimilatory Processes Net energy transfer Reactants Energyreleasing Energymaquiring f transformation m7 39 transformation oxidation kl Eduction Products Reactants Energy lost from system inef ciency Products Figure 71 Coupled reactions are the basis of energy flow in ecosystems Example Oxidation Reduction Ecosystems may be modeled as linked Organic forms lnarganic rorms compartments Biological faster moreintensive processes Geologic slower lessintensive processes Indirectly available organic compounds Animalsquot quot Detritus ligt T 1 peak cnal oil Amulmphic hacleria plants M cmb l a u Erosion g burning M a r 055 uols Asslmllzrinn Respimlundissimilasion phmasyndlejis and mmlinn leaching soquot Weathering lndirec ly available Atmosphere I E innrganiccompuunds lt gt Walter kw Iimesmnevarious T Sediman minerals mck intimation Sediments Figure 73 Carbon as example Figure 75 Elements move among compartments at different rates Fast Turnover Slow Turnover The Water Cycle Why is the water cycle signi cant Water Cycle a Physical Model The water cycle is solarpowered Consumes 25 of the total solar energy striking the Earth Precipitation Evaporation 39 Atmospheric J water vapnr 13 V w 7 Net movement of pmdpimion water was by wind Evapnratinn over due land and transpiratinn m 71 V Evapnminn Precipihtiml 1 s from the sea er the sea quot r 425 385 of i J Water cantenk 1 Runo 39and nf sedimentary rocks groundwater m cant1 s mm an lloO l Wam comm of the ocean I3aoauo Figure 74 The Carbon Cycle is linked to global energy flux Main Processes 1 2 3 1 Photosynthesis and Respiration 2 OceanAtmosphere Exchange 3 Precipitation of Carbonates Figure 75 Changes in Atm C through Geologic Time N N O VI 9 U1 Relative atmospheric C02 concentration U1 1 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Millions of years ago Mya Atmospheric C and Global Warming Carbon dioxide concentrations ppm CO Concentration ppmv Atmospheric CO concentration n ma 1 W v m 1 U a O m N O 300 zsomvv 1980 Year 1860 1960 2000 Figure 231 370 360 350 340 330 320 310 I950 I990 I970 980 2000 Year I960 N takes many forms in the NCycle Major Transformations Ammonification Nitrification Denitrification Nfixation The N Cycle Mun Ammani cau39nn N 09 mgen xlnml reduced i m Arnnuuu by Mitchum qznobaq n39a Niki cztiun by f39mm39quot Moluular nimgnl my 5 3 Mums oxide N20 nitrogen reduction N0 Nikace mom 39 Nanmam by quotWW Denm camm MN MW I gt by Pszulomom oxidiled NItI lE N03 Energy Aerobic energy Anaembic redunion remions requiring releasing coupled to energyreleasing uxidalinns reduction oxidatians The P cycle has few transformations o Amnsphere imi Atmosphere 91 land 9v means 32 42 L4 1 0 10 Sediment 840000000 The Role of Microorganisms Summary Elements are cycled through ecosystems primarily because metabolic activities result in chemical transformations Significance The movements of energy and elements especially carbon parallel one another in ecosystems Energy transformations result from the coupled oxidation and reduction reactions of various elements Water Cycle is a helpful reference model
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