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ANTH 203 Chapter 3 Notes

by: Demaree Rios

ANTH 203 Chapter 3 Notes APY 203

Demaree Rios
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About this Document

These notes cover chapter 3 of the textbook Introduction To Physical Anthropology
Principles of Physical Anthropology
William Pestle
Class Notes
physical anthropology, Anthropology




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demaree Rios on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APY 203 at University of Miami taught by William Pestle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see Principles of Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 01/18/16
CHAPTER 3 NOTES Genetics: study how genes work & traits passed on from one gen. to next ➢ CELLS ○ fund. units of life in all organisms ○ life began >3.5 bya w. single­celled org. (bacteria, blue green algae) ○ 1.2 bya Eukaryotic cells ○ cells of all living org. share many similarities bc of shared evol. past ? Eukaryotic Cells ○ nucleus ○ cytoplasm ­> protein synthesis ○ mitochondria ­> mtDNA ○ ribosomes ○ DNA ○ RNA ➢ Somatic Cells ○ make up body tiss. ➢ Gametes ○ reproduction ○ egg cells & sperm cells = zygote ➢ STRUCTURE OF DNA ○ directs all cell act. ○ JAMES WATSON, FRANCIS CRICK, ROSALIND FRANKLIN,  MAURICE WILKINS ○ composed of 2 chains of nucleotides ○ nucleotide = deoxyribose (sugar mol), phosphate group, 1 of 4  nitrogenous bases ■ adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine (A­T G­C) ➢ DNA REPLICATION ○ into 2 exact daughter cells w. full set of gen. mat. = org. grow, tiss. heal ○ enzymes break bonds­>  exposed bases bond w. nucleotides= new chain  = replicate ➢ PROTEIN SYNTHESIS ○ DNA directs assembly of proteins ○ proteins ■ bind to other mol. to carry out fns ■ enzymes carry out chem. fns ■ hormones produce specific fx in tiss. n organs ○ made up of amino acids (20 diff aa ­> 90,000+ diff combos) ○ DNA sequence specifies triplet(group of 3 bases) specifies aa ­> mRNA  sent out into cyto... ■ mRNA; single stranded, diff type sugar, base T replaced  by Uracile ○ ­> DNA strands partially separate­> one of the strands attracts free  floating RNA nucleotides = transcription=mRNA ­> hit the terminating triplets­> mRNA  leaves DNA model to ribosome for decoding/translation... ○ ­>mRNA triplets(codons) specify aa­> tRNA brings ea. aa to rib­> rib  joins seq. of aa’s in mRNA’s order= protein ■ failure of this= mutation = not fn properly or at all ➢ GENES ○ gene; seq of DNA bases that code for spec aa, protein/part, & fnl prod.  may be composed of thousands of DNA bases combination of introns & exons DNA strand that make up gene = a complete chromosomal seg. responsible for making a fnl prod ■ exon; gene segments that are transc. in prot. synth ■ intron; gene segments that aren’t transc. in prot. synth. ○ genome; entire gen. makeup ○ junk DNA; doesn’t direct prod. of proteins but do prod other mol.s ➢ REGULATORY GENES ○ control expression of other genes ○ make kinds of R/P/FP that switch DNA segments(genes) on/off  diminish/enhance ○ cells become specialized during embryonic dvpt for certain fns so certain parts of DNA switched off ○ homeobox genes; dir. dvpt of overall body plan & segmentation of tiss. . highly conserved, important bc shared across complex and less complex earth organisms  = huge evol. implications ■ hox genes; dir. early segmentation of embryonic tiss.,  specify what kind of cell they will become, work together to determine char. of  body segments (but not dvpt) ➢ MUTATION ○ point­mutation/base substitution ○ for a new mut. to be evol. sign. must be passed on to off. ad become  more common in pop. ○ Sickle­Cell Anemia *are medical advancements helping or hurting evol. since it’s no longer nat’l sel. ? ➢ CHROMOSOMES ○ visible during cell replication; composed of 2 DNA mol.s that tightly coil & joined @ centromere + prot.s ○ 46 ○ autosomes; (22 pairs) carry info that governs all phys. char. except  primary sex determination ○ sex chromosomes; (1 pair) ■ X fns more like autosome. XX=♀  ■ Y XY=♂ ○ offs. inh. one member of ea. chrom. pair from ea. parent (paternal and  maternal chrom.) ○ locus; the position/loc. on a chrom. where a given gene occurs ○ alleles; alternate forms of a gene. occur @ same locus on paired chrom.  so govern same trait but bc diff = diff expression ○ karyotype(ing); chromosomes microphotographed. help diagnose  chrom. disorders or chrom. abn.s ➢ CELL DIVISION ○ mitosis; how somatic cells reproduce during growth & dvpt or repair  injury or replace older cells w. new ones ■ chrom. pairs align @ center ­>split @ centromere­>  membrane pinches, single chrom. move to egdes­> cell splits into 2, ea. is copy  of og., chrom. no longer visible bc DNA replicated ■ red blood, brain, & liver cells don’t replicate ○ meiosis; reproduces gametes ■ double stranded chrom. align @ center to exchange gen.  info. (recombination)­> reduction division; cell ÷s member pairs separate but  chrom. remain intact, move to opposite ends of cell= 2 daughter cells ea. w. 23  chrom.­> second division; chrom. split @ centr., strands move to edges, cell  splits= 4 cells ea. w. 23 chrom. ■ increases gen. variation in pop.s, enhances gen. div. bc  random assortment produces new arrangements of gen. mat’l, gives nat’l sel.  something to act on ■ non­disjunction; failure to separate, one daughter cell  receive 2 copies of chrom. while the other receives none, so now zygote has 45  or 47(trisomy)  and all future cells will inherit incorrect number of chrom.


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