HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) January 15-22, 2016 Notes
HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) January 15-22, 2016 Notes HIST 1020
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
January 1522, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan ORIGINS OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION The French Revolution launched the modern political era; it inspired political change (especially Activism) and promoted human rights. France was under Absolutism, meaning the king had full power. o No one could question the king’s power, and rights/privileges really did not exist for the French people. France was organized into estates, or social groups/classes: o 1 Estate: Clergy France was very Catholic; people of this estate only made up 23% of the entire French population; this class was not taxed, and they were not held to the legal system (they had their own system within the church); they held much power nd o 2 Estate: Nobility There was different levels of “nobility,” including Aristocrats; this class was very privileged; they were considered special because they were typically the warriors; they were exempted from all direct taxes; by the 18 century many were lawyers and wealthy land owners; they controlled the government and the military; sons were usually in the Clergy; made up 23% of French population rd o 3 Estate: Third Estate Not privileged and paid the taxes; this class made the economy work; made up 95% of French population; this class is broken into three groups: Bourgeoisie: educated, middle class, paid less taxes, entrepreneurs and businessmen, read the authors of the Enlightenment SansCulottes: urban working class, worked for the Bourgeoisie, wore long trousers, had a hard life Peasants: paid the most taxes, poor people, made up 85% of the French population There was much inflation and unemployment on the eve of the French Revolution; the financial crisis fueled the Revolution. The French government was on the brink of bankruptcy as a result of Louis XIV and Marie Antoinette’s spending as well as from France’s involvement in various wars (7Year War and American Revolution). January 1522, 2016 Calonne is Louis XIV’s finance minister; he says they could raise taxes to solve the debt problem but doesn’t think it would work; so he proposed a whole new tax structure: Land Tax (it would effect the nobility and the church). Louis XIV says they need approval from the Estates General, which is France’s version of Parliament – it approves taxes for the country (hasn’t met since 1614); the kings rarely called upon the Estates General because they could take advantage and lessen the power of the king. In 1787, the Assembly of Notables (144 individuals) met and requested to see the king’s spending history; Louis XIV refuses and fires Calonne. Resistance of the Parliament – tell king they can’t change the law, so Louis XIV removed leaders from the court, everyone else went on strike, so the judicial court/government began to shut down (this is where the term “no taxation without representation stemmed from). Marie Antoinette scandalized France, she spent much money for her fashion, she didn’t care about the people at all, and she was very much despised. 1789 – Estates General Meets and Revolution Starts o France chose delegates to represent each of the three social groups, but it was not proportional representation. Each group was placed in a different chamber to collaborate, but each estate would receive only 1 vote (this wasn’t fair to the lowest class because it made up 95% of the population but still only got 1 vote). o The Clergy and Nobility voted “no” to the new tax reform, and this upset the Third Estate because they did not have fair representation. o The Third Estate, therefore, called it’s own assembly: the National Assembly, which rejected the idea of the old estate. June 20, 1789 – Tennis Court Oath o The National Assembly met for the first time on a literal tennis court, they pledged their allegiance to each other and began to write a constitution. This event sparked the beginnings of the French Revolution. Pendulum Thesis: there are moderate reforms within France at first, but they become more and more radical until the “pendulum” swings all the way to the left or right extreme January 1522, 2016 Storming of the Bastille: this incident was a physical symbol of the oppression of the monarchy o The high-ranking aristocrats (anti-revolutionists) tried to convince the king to use military power to shut down the revolutionaries, but the king just makes it more radical. While everyone is at Versailles, the king moves troops into Paris. In response, the Parisians in France start preparing for war – they gather weapons and ammunition from the Bastille. They killed some “traitors” and hoisted their heads on pikes. Became known as France’s Independence Day The Great Fear: paranoia was prevalent, rumors spread that the local nobles had hired people to assault the peasants o Out of fear, the peasants started raiding and storming nobles’ homes o Summer of 1789 – things explode, the National Assembly had to take action th Decrees of August 4 : the National Assembly held a meeting in which nobleman after nobleman stood up and proclaimed “I renounce all the dues, payments, and obligations that the peasants owe to me and my land.” o Peasants are emancipated. Declaration of the Rights of Man: written by Marquis de Lafayette; constitution wasn’t finished yet, but they wished to declare all men free and equal (wanted all to have same political rights) The 1 Constitution (Fall 1791) saved the monarchy, but it became a constitutional monarchy [limited monarchy] o There were major limits on the king (no more absolutism). o The power was shared between the monarch and the representatives. Legislative Assembly: king and representative assembly came to be called “Government of the Legislative Assembly” o It was more radical and pro-revolutionary than the National Assembly. o Conservatives liked this new government (“right-winged”) o The “left-wings” say they aren’t okay with it – they want a republic and a new constitution January 1522, 2016 Girondists: wanted a minimalist government with a Laissez-Faire economy (less government power and let the economy run itself) Jacobins: they were more radical than the Girondists, wanted a republic, wanted a government to represent the working class, wanted a big government, wanted more minimum wage jobs o Two Jacobin orators: Danton: highly educated, attorney, great public speaker, flamboyant, could go into the streets and attract a crowd, inspirational, could mobilize his listeners Robespierre: well put together, control freak, cold personality, doctrine follower of democratic principles (really drives the republic phase) The Legislative Assembly is not opposed to war, and (in fact) the policies shifted to become more radical through war. o Danton and Robespierre wanted to expand the revolution to other European nations (they thought losing the war would bring about a new government). o The “right-wingers” wanted to go to war to solidify the current government. o Marie Antoinette’s family (Austria) was worried about the French monarchy, and they said they would invade France if necessary. o The eventual war (France vs. Austria/Prussia in 1792) brings down the government and discredits the constitution. National Convention: this is the 2 ndconstitution, it ends the monarchy, France is now a republic (meaning there was no king); it is very radical (there is a split between the Girondists and Jacobins). o The Girondists lose and Robespierre dominates. King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette (she was accused of treason) are then executed via guillotine. The National Convention instituted the first modern draft (all young man of military capability were drafted to war, women were recruited to serve in hospitals and make uniforms, children also helped the women, old men were sent out to help as well). January 1522, 2016 o It created the first civilian military. o France was able to drive the Austrians/Prussians out of the country. Reign of Terror: this was a very radical point of the revolution o The Committee of Public Safety stood in for the government for a time and fought both internal and external enemies. In 1793, it carried out a purge of France (known as the Reign of Terror) where it executed thousands of people, who were accused of being counter- revolutionary, on the guillotine with little or no trial. During this time France underwent a cultural revolution as well. o Censorship: everyone had to reflect the ideas and values of the government o A new calendar was made (1792 was the “new year” (birth of the republic). o There was a revolution in fashion (styles copied that of ancient Rome because they had a republic as well). o Children were given Roman names. o There were many casualties during this time, and Danton was even executed. Robespierre called for another purge of France in the summer of 1794; this was called the Thermadorian Reaction. 1795: The Directory takes over as the new government (it is the longest lasting government in the revolution). o It is much more moderate, still is a republic (legislative body and 5 “directors”) – the goal was to spread out and balance the power of the government. It preferred Laissez- Faire, but would regulate the economy when necessary. o The major policy was war. France became aggressive and exported the revolution to other European counties; it was already winning against Austria/Prussia. The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte: he was born on Corsica in the Mediterranean to a low noble, Italian family, he was sent to school in France and military school at age 9, he became a sub lieutenant then a general and eventually an emperor o Napoleon was presented with many opportunities to rise to power (with all the war and many of the officers fleeting France). January 1522, 2016 o In 1796, the Directory granted Napoleon command of the French troops in Italy (fought the Austrians in Italy) – this is where his career took off. o Napoleon was known for his Mass and Mobility tactic – moved a lot of troops very fast (he limited soldiers’ supplies and taught them to live off the land). He always outnumbered the enemy, and he really understood geography and used it to his advantage. o 1799: Napoleon and his army faced the British in the Battle of the Nile Coup d’état – “a kind of sudden blow to the state” (end of the Directory) A new government was established: the Consulate (had a legislative body and a committee of 3 Consuls [Napoleon was one]) o It was patterned after the Roman republic o 1802 – Napoleon changes his “Consul for 10 years” to “Consul for life.” Napoleon is becoming like a monarch again. 1804 – he becomes Emperor of France The question is: “Is Napoleon a carrier of or a betrayer of the Revolution?” Napoleon’s Empire: he rules France and creates a European empire (French Empire + allied states + independent states) o France limited then deposed the governments of the conquered lands and instituted republics (Napoleon often rebuilt the monarchs and put his siblings in charge). o The reforms called for constitutional change (they abolished serfdom and adopted the idea that all men are created equal). o Napoleon implements the Metric System, which really helps the economy and the field of science. This was one of his greatest accomplishments. o He also imposed a single code of law (Napoleonic Code. Napoleon’s downfall: a number of things led to his downfall. o He could never defeat the British (realized you had to defeat them by sea, but never succeeded). Battle of Trafalgar – British Admiral Nelson defeated Napoleon January 1522, 2016 o His Continental System failed. It was a boycott on British goods (tried to defeat the British by ruining their economy). Britain had the first industrial economy. People liked the cheap British stuff, so this system was hurting more than helping. Germany, the Low Countries, and others were happy to follow Napoleon because of his liberty and equality reforms, but when he started tampering with the economy they became uneasy. The Continental System blew up (brings about much nationalism, which is a strong pride in one’s nationality and country). o 1812 – Napoleon wanted to overtake Russia. Placed largest army (650,000) to march to Russia. The Russians retreated and destroyed everything behind them (called the Scorch-Earth Policy) leaving the French soldiers with nothing. Napoleon lost ½ million men on that campaign. Germany raises troops against Napoleon, and the British defeat him on his own soil. They take him to the island of Elba and tell him he can rule that. Napoleon puts together an army from Elba and eventually lands on the southern coast of France. o The 100 Days Napoleon’s new army began marching north and old followers joined along. The British met his army. o Napoleon is finally taken down by the British (under the Duke of Wellington) at The Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon is taken as a prisoner to St. Helena where he finally dies. Europe is left an absolute mess. As a result, all the heads of state meet in Vienna. 1858 – The Congress of Vienna o Huge (conservative) decisions were made. Old ruling dynasties were restored, and boundaries were redrawn. o People ignored the nationalistic ideas of Germany and Italy. This set the stage for future revolutions and revolts.
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