Class Note for ECOL 482 at UA
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Zoogeography Chpt 16 part 17 Number of species Marine 58 w 71 of water v Freshwater 41 Freshwater Primary 33 v Secondary 81 v Diadromous 6 Lakesrivers lt 009 and 0001 total water supply respectively most freshwater in icecaps groundwater Marine 71 of world water 33 or 32 phyla 15 exclusive Water 1 The World Ocean 2 Glaciers and permanent snow cover 3 Ground water permafrost 4 Lakes rivers bogs 5 Water in atmosphere Zoogeography l Pelagic Epipelagic Mesopelagic Bathypelagic Abyssopelagic Benthic Littoral Sublittoral Bathyal Abyssal Ultraabyssal CDNOUO lb00l Zoogeography Major Marine Zoogeographic Regions Four Main Ecological Divisions of Marine Fish Epipelagic surface down to 200 m 13 of species 325 SPP Continents and temperature examples of tunas most widespread Little tunas associated with shore halfbeaks offshore Hemiramphus more widespread than inshore Hyporhamphus and needlefish same with needlefish Zoogeography Major Marine Zoogeographic Regions Four Main Ecological Divisions of Marine Fish Deep Pelagic mesopelagic 200 m to 1000m and bathypelagic gt 1000 m 5 Sills ridges that act as barriers and temperature limit temps vary in different deep zones Zoogeography mmi him my murmur k commun 0 5 ID IS 20 Major Marine Zoogeographic Regions Four Main Ecological Divisions of Marine Fish 3 Deep Benthic 64 or 1500 spp hurlyptlazk Ilymplllgi nulew Zoogeography Major Marine Zoogeographic Regions Four Main Ecological Divisions of Marine Fish 4 Littoral or Continental Shelf Shore and shelf above 200 m 11250 spp 45 399 Shallowwarm Shallowcold 56 Temperature limits both fish and habitat corals above 50m gt 18 degrees C 39 Cummnml mmzm Coral Reef Distribution above 50m gt 18 degrees C Inshore divided into four Major Inshore Marine Regions 7 separated by continents or vast marine regions 1 IndoWest Pacific Region 3000 species 13 corals bivalves etc inshore divided into four Major inshore Marine Regions 7 separated by continents or vast marine regions 2 Western Atlantic about 1200 spp associated w West Indian coral reefs Inshore divided into four Major Inshore Marine Regions 7 separated by continents or vast marine regions 3 Eastern Paci c7 recently separated from western Atlantic 7 barrier open oceaanne elevation ortne Panama lsmatnus about 3 million years agoegerninate species pairs inshore divided into four Major inshore Marine Regions 7 separated by continents or vast marine regions 4 Eastern Atlantic Region relatively depauperate 500 inshore spp Zoogeography Vicariance Biogeography Distributions and phylogeny area cladogram Vicariance event vs Dispersal Barriervs Filter barrier Three Kinds of Dispersal Leading to Range Expansion Jump Dispersal Diffusion Secular Migration Zoogeography Continental Drift Continental drift 1915 Alfred Wegener Pangea single landmass 430 mya About 180 mya split into Gondwana SA Africa Australia Antarctica Madagascar and India vs Laurasia Eurasia and North America Zoogeography Mediterranean Sea depauperate 540 species Historical drying Suez canal one way transfers open and empty niches for warm water species widespread spp penetrate Arctic and Antarctic 274 spp surrounding 174 immediate Fishes 56 lots of cool adaptations Freshwater Fishes Greater contribution to biodiversity 41 diversity but 0093 of water marine 113000 km2sp available vs freshwater 15 km2sp available Ecological versus Historical phylogenetic amp geologic Productivity shallow productive and Isolation freq biogeographic events Primary strict v Secondary occasional marine Freshwaterfish vs Peripheral marinethat are part time in fresh or some part of life history diadromous Six Regions of Freshwater Fish Alfred Russel Wallace 1876 Six Regions of Freshwater Fish 1 Nearctic N Amer 14 fam 950 spp Cyprinidae Catostomidae Ictaluridae Percidae Centrarchidae Three subregions 1Arctic Atlantic 2 Pacific 3 Mexican transition Six Regions of Freshwater Fish 2 Neotropical S Amer 32 fam 2500 spp no minnowssuckers Charicins Catfish Gymnotids Cichlids many marine invaders Six Regions of Freshwater Fish 3 Palearctic N Europe amp Asia 14 families 10 Six Regions of Freshwater Fish 4 African Diverse 27 families primaw 47 overall 2000 spp Six Regions of Freshwater Fish 4 African Diverse 27 families primaw 47 overall 2000 spp 11 Six Regions of Freshwater Fish 6 Austalian 2 sp primary only Ancient relicls Osteoglossidae Scleropages and Ceratodontidae Neoceratodus 16 family marine origin Archaic Archaic 6 groups distributions continental drift 1 Lungfish 3 genera Africa SA and Australian 2 Bichirs 11 spp 2 genera in Africa fossil SA 3 Paddlefish one Mississippi and China 4 Gars 7 NA CA Cuba w fossils in India and Europe 5 Amiidae one living fossil on all except Australia 6 Osteoglossomorphs Primitive Teleost Primitive widespread no Australia 12 Recent Recent Five groups primary freshwater 1 Pickerels and relatives NA Europe and Asia Northern Pike greatest distribution of any north hemisphere sh 2 Darters and perches NA Europe Asia 3 Sun sh 12 E NA and 1 California Archoplites 4 Cichlids Madagascar India SA and Africa 5 Ostariophysi Cypriniformes three large 2 small families Carps and Minnows missing SA and Australia Suckers NA except 1 China 13
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