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Week 2 SG

by: Lejla Bilanovic

Week 2 SG Hum 591

Lejla Bilanovic
U of L
GPA 3.4
Perspectives in Ancient Cultures
Linda Gigante

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About this Document

These notes cover what Dr. Gigante covered in the second week of class.
Perspectives in Ancient Cultures
Linda Gigante
Class Notes
athens, Ancient Cultures
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lejla Bilanovic on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hum 591 at University of Louisville taught by Linda Gigante in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Perspectives in Ancient Cultures in Arts and Humanities at University of Louisville.

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Date Created: 01/18/16
Study Guide History of Athens amp ll Hellas Greek name for Greece Hellenic The culture of the Greeks Classical period enters during the Iron Age Neolithic Sesklo site of earliest evidence of civilization in Greek not yet Greek peoples There is no writing at that time stone age Bronze Age 30001200 BCE comes after the stone age Bronze became the principle material Bronze is an alloy of tin and copper imported from other areas First Greek speaking people arrive around 2000 BCE from Asia Brought the Greek language bronze skills the chariot a militaristic culture weapons found in graces Comes to a violent end in 1200 BCE Mycenaean 15001200 BCE High point in the Bronze Age Established sites multiple palaces heavily forti ed concerned about safety Flowering of Greek culture Evidence of trade Possibly mercenaries Athens had Mycenaean remain the only ones that weren t destroyed They traveled around the Mediterranean Masters of stone construction like the Lion s Gate Prosperous and rich culture Potter manufactured in Greece shipped abroad Culture ends in 1200 almost all the palaces destroyed Unclear as to why this happened Coincides with the end of the Trojan War which may have actually occurred Mycenae capital of the Mycenaean world Magaron throne room audience hall Acropolis high point in the city Linear B writing system for scribes Found in palaces Deciphered in the late 1950 s Not used by common people Lists of inventories Earliest surviving form of Greek Had proper names of Greek Gods and Goddesses Hermes considered a god of transitions and boundaries He is described as quick and cunning moving freely between the worlds of the mortal and divine He is also portrayed as an emissary and messenger of the gods an intercessor between mortals and the divine and conductor of souls into the afterlife He has been viewed as the protector and patron of herdsmen thieves oratory and wit literature and poetry athletics and sports invention and trade roads boundaries and travelers Dionysus is the god of the grape harvest winemaking and wine of ritual madness fertility theatre and religious ecstasy in Greek mythology Athena is the goddess of wisdom courage inspiration civilization law and justice mathematics strength war strategy the arts crafts and skill Patron goddess of Athens Homer39s quotIliadquot Tells the story of the last few months of the Trojan War lts hero is Achilles It s an epic poem Achaeans What Homer calls the Mycenaean s those contemporary with the time frame of the Iliad Troy Cites that gets destroyed by the Greeks in the Trojan War Thought to be mythical but remains of a great city have been found in Asia Minor Polis Citystate What the Greeks lived in never a united Greece Aristocracy Rule of the Best39 governed by a small group of people the aristocrats the wealthy Moral virtuewealth Olympic Games at Olympia Start in 776 BCE Olympia is in southern Greece religious shrine for Zeus Athletic competition came from all over the Greek speaking world To be physically t is to be a good soldier The Greeks told time by Olympiads Zeus King of the Gods God of the sky lightening thunder law order and jusUce Phoenician Alphabet The Greek adapted this alphabet to t their language Found it through trade Coinage from Lydia Greeks start to make their own coins in the iron age Got the idea from Lydia Each polis had their own coins One of the most popular coins is the owl from Athens Attica The area around Athens controlled by Athens Ceramicus Cemetery Where we get the word ceramics Potter s workshops located next to the cemetery where it got its name Vases were buried with the dead Geometric Vases c750 BCE certain style of pottery Able to date things in this way thanks to changes in style Early Archaic Period 700600 BCE Corinth Wealthiest polls in the early archaic period Has two harbors facing different directions good for trade lmmensely powerful Lots of archeological remains including vases which depicted exotic animals from the near east Evidence of trade and wealth Ecclesia citizen assembly Archon the ecclesia elects three officials to run Athens every year for one year only Each one called an Archon The three archons had complete control over everything Council of the Areopagos legislative body made up of former Archons all aristocratic Chiefjudicial body as well Areopagos means the hill of Ares Draco 621 BCE elect Draco a legislator to make laws for Athens All the laws had severe punishments Death was the penalty for lots of crimes 1st attempt at some kind of order Later Archaic Period 600500 BCE turning point for Athens Solon 1 of 7 greatest Greeks Poet political former Given the task to reform legislation in Athens to guide a compromise of have and havenots Violence is growing tries to solve it through legislation Council of the 400 established by Solon 4 tribes 100 citizens from each tribe elected Prepared legislation a representative body of the people Agora central market place of Athens Peisistratos 560 510 tyrant aristocrat appealed to the masses seized power militarily Supported the wealthy for political advancement Institutions still exist but now he controls them Maintained his appeal to the masses through festivals and public works projects Festival of the Panathenaia included all of Athens Celebrated the birth of Athena Athletic games won olive oil Festival of the City Dionysia held every year celebrated Dionysus god of drama Held dramatic productions Thespis 1st actor Hippias and Hipparchos sons of Peisistratos Athens hated them 514 assassination attempt Two citizens plan their duel murders Hipparchos is killed Hippias escapes End of tyranny quotTyrant Slayersquot quotTyrannicidesquot the two citizens who tried to kill the tryants Heralded as heroes Cleisthenes credited with being the father of democracy 510 becomes ruler 10 tribes each elects 50 members to the Boule Each tribe elects one general for the year Board of lo generals Increases the number of citizens with a direct hand in the government Council of the 500 Boule 500 elected members Controlled nances and prepared laws for the ecclesia Kouros young male statue Kore young women statue quotThe Smiling Onesquot aristocrats were referred by this name Often Kore and Kouros were smiling Black Figure VasesRed Figure Vases vases that became extremely popular Made in Athens and shipped around the Mediterranean


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