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Week 1: Rocky Roads of Reconstruction

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by: Carina Sauter

Week 1: Rocky Roads of Reconstruction HIST 2112

Marketplace > University of Georgia > History > HIST 2112 > Week 1 Rocky Roads of Reconstruction
Carina Sauter
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Notes cover intro lecture and lecture titled "Rocky Roads of Reconstruction" covering the Civil War briefly and the events leading to the election of Rutherford B. Hayes.
American History Since 1865
Dr. Rohrer
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Rohrer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Rocky Roads to Reconstruction: 1863-1877 I. The American Civil War – a brief overview • American life and politics • Issues: economics, cultural values, federal government • Tied to role of slavery • What sparked the war in 1861? 1. Slave states (confederacy) seceded from union § Thought slave ownership was threatened by Lincoln (would he limit their power?) § Tension between north and south has been increasing since 1777 § North and south were tired of compromising their values § South looked forward to seceding and expanding (geographically to Cuba and South America) 2. The Fort Sumter Crisis (Charleston Harbor, SC) § South Carolina demanded the union army to leave for Sumter – refused § April 12, 1861: confederates bombarded Fort Sumter § 34 hours, union finally retreated § Lincoln asked for volunteers to help • April 1861: Civil War began § Lasted 4 years (April 1865) across 18,000 miles § North wanted one big union and abolition of slavery § South wanted independence – turned into a lot more § Union needed to: 1. Invade south 2. Defeat confederate army 3. Occupy southern territory = South ran out of steam physically and financially § April 18, 1865: confederate army surrendered § 617,000 Americans died = same number of all previous wars combined II. Snapshot of America 1865 • Population = 30 million o 4 million = African Americans (14%) • Incredibly rural, especially in the south • Small cities are more like large towns in south • Most of war was fought in the south o 290,000 southern soldiers died o 200,000 wounded o fields were ruined due to lack of upkeep o railroads uprooted o rubble cities o financial system collapsed o Richmond VA (Confederacy capital) ruined III. Reconstruction – Reuniting a Nation Torn 1. Many questions • How much reconstruction would be needed? Who will be in charge? What terms would be needed to rejoin the confederacy? How harshly should the South be punished? Who would establish the terms (Congress? President?) What’s the place of newly freed African Americans? Do black men have the same status as white men? What happens to the confederate leaders? IV. Presidential Reconstruction – the gentle approach • Readmit Southern states • Lincoln: “With malice toward none, with charity for all” • 1863: before the war even ended, restoration began 1. Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863) • issued a proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction for areas of confederacy occupied by union army • offered pardon to any confederate citizen who took an oath to be loyal to union o 10% of white men per state were reunited 2. Lincoln the racial moderate • Lincoln was a moderate liberal • wanted to end slavery but did not support equal rights • majority liked Lincoln and his ideas that states should be integrated asap • Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865, same month war ends 3. Andrew Johnson – Continuing Lincoln’s “gentle approach”? Not entirely • Andrew Johnson (VP) becomes president o Viewed as a hard ass o According to him, the proclamation was meant to punish the south o His terms for re-admittance were severe § Disenfranchised all armies and wealthy/political white men lost land and voting rights § Wanted to take away political power from rich landowners o Despised economic southern elite on plantations with slaves because he grew up poor o Ravid racist who did not like African Americans or white northerners advocating for African American rights o From eastern Tennessee • 6 months later, Johnson thought it was all fixed, but south wants to go back to its old south – don’t give up o black codes in south: blacks were completely subordinate = labor supply o emancipation + civil rights o black codes: • blacks + jury • blacks + vote • blacks + leasing/renting land • fire arm without license • labor provisions o required to do labor contracts every year • fines for drinking/begging o don’t pay fine à chain gang prison V. Radical Reconstruction – the “get tough” approach • Thaddeus Stevens (radical leader from PA) House of Representatives • Benjamin Wade (radical leader from Ohio) House of Representatives • Charles Sumner (radical leader from MA) Senate o Rejected president: reconstruction § Would just help the south revolt and go back to their old ways o Wanted to grant old slaves full citizenship o Congress should head reconstruction o Said South comthttethtreasonthnd they will try to rise again 1. Constitutional acts – 13 , 14 and 15 amendments – 1865 • 13 : abolished slavery in US and all placed controlled by US (states) • 14 : granted citizenship to all born in US th • 15 : African American men can vote o states created poll taxes and literacy tests • Reconstruction Acts of 1867 – Congress o Divided Southern states (except TN) into 5 military sections § 25,000 federal troops to “keep the peace” 2. Freedmen’s Bureau • meant to help Southern whites and African Americans 1. Introduce free labor in South – no slaves 2. Over saw 3000 schools for freed people 3. Contracts between white landowners and black laborers 4. justice for blacks in state courts • Not entirely accomplished • Thousands of Americans became literate • Budget cut by 1869: basically ended by 1872 VI. Impeaching Andrew Johnson • Thought Freedmen’s Bureau was unconstitutional and blocked enforcement • Gave confederates pardons • Friendly to South • Impeached (first impeachment) 126:47 vote o Because he defied an office act where he dismissed officials without permission from senate o Does not mean removal from office o Remained president but lost power/ influence • Ulysses Grand wins next presidency VII. “Redemption” – the white south regains power • “Southern redemption”: overthrow/defeat of radical republicans by democrats ending reconstruction in south o made sure AA had no political representation 1. The KKK and the intimidation of African Americans and Union sympathizers • relentless underground violence against blacks and sympathetic whites • wanted to restore white supremacy and democratic party • other groups as well • many politicians were victims 2. “Reconstruction Fatigue” in the North • 1870’s • wanted to move on to more pressing issues i. Panic of 1873 • wages fell by ¼ • 9/10 US railroad firms failed • double digit unemployment for more than a decade ii. Racism and death of Radical Republicans • key figures (Stevens, Sumner) died and no one stepped up to the reigns • movements crumbled iii. Legal setbacks and the Supreme Court • new supreme course justices were racist iv. Growing labor strife in industrializing North • North had new pressing issues o Immigrants o Industrialism – concentration of wealth VIII. The Final Act – The Compromise of 1877 and End of Reconstruction • The Compromise of 1877 o Starts with election of 1876 • Rutherford B. Hayes vs. Tilden o Tilden won popular vote o But tied in electoral votes o Voting fraud o Had to wait weeks to find out • Hayes = president (republican) with conditions 1. Republicans withdraw federal soldiers from South in the 5 districts 2. Enact industrialism in south


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