CHM 112 Week 1 Notes
CHM 112 Week 1 Notes CHM 112
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Swafford on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 112 at University of Miami taught by Dr Burjor Captain in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 112 in Chemistry at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Chemistry 112: Notes 1/11/16 Thermodynamics : W = F x D Work (Joules) = Force (Newton) x Distance (meters) F = m x v Force (Newton) = Mass (Kilograms) x Acceleration (Meters per Second ) 2 Heat – Energy transfer from one object to another because of a difference in temperature Energy – Capacity to work or transfer heat Kinetic Energy – Energy of motion KE = (.5)(mass)(velocity) 2 KE = (.5)(m)(v) 2 Potential Energy – Energy in terms of position; attractive and repulsive forces 1 Calorie = 4.184 Joules = The amount of energy required to raise 1g of water by 1 C 1 cal = 4.184 J st 1 Law: Energy is conserved. Energy is never created or destroyed. Energy lost by a system = Energy gained by surroundings and vice versa E = Change in internal energy of the system E = E final Einitial If E is positive, then finalE initial energy has been gained by the system from the surroundings. If E is negative, then E < E and energy has been lost by the system final initial to the surroundings. E = q + w q = heat added/taken to/from the system w = work done on or by the system If q is positive, heat is added to the system. If q is negative, heat is lost from the system. If w is positive, work is done on the system. If w is negative, work is done by the system. Example: If a system absorbs 50 J of heat and the system does 10 J of work on its surroundings, what is E? Answer: E = q + w q = +50 J (system absorbs heat) w = -10 J (work done by the system) E = 50 J + -10 J E = 40 J Enthalpy – to warm; (H) H – change in enthalpy H = q at constant pressure aka H = q p H = q p Chemistry 112: Notes 1/13/16 Thermodynamics : Endothermic (“endo” – into) Reactions – absorb heat; heat goes “into” the reaction Exothermic (“exo” – out of) Reasctions – release heat; heat goes “out of” the reaction Enthalpy of Reaction of Heat of Reaction: H reaction= H products- H reactants Properties of Enthalpy: 1) Extensive aka quantity matters Ex. In the reaction CH (g) + O (g) H O (g) + CO (g) 4 2 2 2 H = -802 If you reacted twice the amount of methane, H = 2(-802) or -1604 2) H reaction equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the reverse reaction Ex. 2Cl Cl2 = exothermic (bond formed and energy released) Yet, Cl2 2Cl =endothermic (bond broken and energy needed) 3) H depends on the states of the reactants and products Ex. H 2 (l) H2O (s) is exothermic Expanding Gas Confined to a Cylinder with a Moveable Piston: W = F x D P = F / A or F = P x A W = P x A x D (distance ex. height) V = Area x Height Therefore, W = -PV (System does work on the surrounding, so work is negative) E = q + w therefore, E = H - PV Chemistry 112: Notes 1/15/16 Thermodynamics : Calorimetry – Measure of heat flow Heat Capacity – Temperature change experienced by a body when it absorbs a certain amount of heat Molar Heat Capacity – Heat capacity for 1 mole Specific Heat Capacity (aka Specific Heat) – Heat capacity for 1 gram Specific Heat = (quantity of heat transferred) / ((grams of substance)(change in temperature)) C = q/((m)( T))
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