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Notes for Week of January 11 (Fixed)

by: Macen Notetaker

Notes for Week of January 11 (Fixed) CHEM1041

Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > Chemistry > CHEM1041 > Notes for Week of January 11 Fixed
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These are the notes for the first week of CHEM1041, this time in PDF format.
General Chemistry 2
Dr. Waddell
Class Notes
chemistry 2
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Macen Notetaker on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM1041 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Waddell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
CHEM 1041 General Chemistry II Notes for Week of January 11 Chapter 12 Attractive Forces – Electrostatic in nature Intramolecular forces (Bonding forces) Forces within a molecule, these forces affect chemical properties Intermolecular forces (Nonbinding forces) Forces between molecules, these forces affect physical properties A macroscopic comparison of gases, liquids, and solids: State Shape Volume Flow Compressibility Gas Indefinite Indefinite Flows freely Compressible Liquid Indefinite Definite Flows slightly Slightly compressible Solid Definite Definite Does not flow Uncompressible A Kinetic – Molecular comparison of gases, liquids, and solids: State Attractive force vs. Kinetic Energy Properties Gas Interaction Energies small relative to Particles exist far apart from Kinetic Energies one another Liquid IEs are large relative to KEs Able to flow; Indefinite shape Solid IEs dominate KEs Fixed shape and volume Phase Changes: Enthalpy change due to sublimation is equal to the total of the enthalpy changes from vaporization and fusion. ∆???? 0 = ∆???? 0 + ∆???? 0 ???????????????? ???????????? ???????????? Note that the other three phase changes do not have their own values, but instead are negative compared these three: Sublimation ∆???? ???????????????? Deposition −∆???? ???????????????? Vaporization ∆???? 0 Condensation −∆???? 0 ????0???? 0???????? Fusion ∆???????????????? Freezing −∆???? ???????????? Equations for heat gained or lost during phase changes: q = (amount) * (molar heat capacity) * Δt q = (amount) * (ΔH of phase change) The first of these equations will be used within a phase, where the temperature will be changing. The second will be used during a phase change, where there is no change in temperature. This is a standard cooling curve, which illustrates that temperatures do not change during a phase change. Vapor Pressure A closed system held at a constant pressure will experience liquid – gas equilibrium. Wherein the rate of evaporation is equal to the rate of condensation. Vapor Pressure – Pressure exerted by a vapor on its liquid or solid phase at a given temperature in a closed system. This value is highly related to the evaporation rate of the substance, and substances with very high vapor pressure are referred to as volatile. Clausius – Clapeyron Equation – Relates vapor pressure to temperature −∆???? ???????????? 1 ???????????? = ( ) + ???? ???? ???? ????2 −∆???? ???????????? 1 1 ln( ) = ( − ) ????1 ???? ????2 ????1 Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point Boiling Point – Temperature at which vapor pressure exceeds external pressure. Normal Boiling Point – Boiling point at a pressure of one atmosphere, or 760 torr As external pressure increases, boiling point also increases. Phase Diagram Critical Point – At this point, the densities of the liquid and gas phases are equal. Triple Point – At this point, the substance exists as all three phases in equilibrium. Inter-Molecular Force (IMF) Classifications IMF Variety Reason for Attraction Ion-Dipole Ion Charge & Dipole Charge Dipole-Dipole Dipole Charges Hydrogen Bonding Polar Bond to H & High Electronegativities or N, O, and F Ion Induced Dipole Ion Charge & Polarizable Cloud of Electrons Dipole Induced Dipole Dipole Charge & Polarizable Cloud London (Dispersion) Polarizable Clouds Forces Polarizability & Induced Dipoles A nearby electric field can induce a distortion in the electron cloud of an atom, ion, or molecule, pulling electron density toward a positive pole of a field or pushing it away from a negative one. For a nonpolar molecule, this induces a temporary dipole moment. For a polar molecule, this enhances the existing dipole moment. Trends in Polarizability In general: Polarizability increases down a group Polarizability decreases across a period This means that it trends to the left and down, which is identical to the trend for Atomic Radius. Therefore, Francium is the most polarizable, and Fluorine is the least. Additionally, cations will be smaller and therefore less polarizable than their parent atoms. Anions are larger, and are more polarizable. London Dispersion Forces These IMFs are always present between any two molecules, but they are stronger in more polarizable particles. Application of IMFs 1. Surface Tension – Energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid. a. The stronger forces between particles are, the higher the surface tension of that liquid is. Surface particles have a net attraction toward the bulk of the liquid, which is downward. This is different that a particle in the center of the sample, which is pulled in all directions and has no net attraction. This net attraction causes the surface to have the smallest possible area. 2. Boiling Point a. Boiling point is increased with greater IMFs, particularly Hydrogen Bonding. As the strength of the IMFs increase, a larger amount of energy is required to separate the molecules in the liquid and the boiling point increases to reflect this. b. Due to greater IMFs yielding a higher boiling point, it can also be said that an increase in polarizability results in a higher boiling point.


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