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chapter 16 discover biology notes

by: Nadya Notetaker

chapter 16 discover biology notes BISC 1006

Marketplace > George Washington University > Biology > BISC 1006 > chapter 16 discover biology notes
Nadya Notetaker
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these notes cover chapter 16 in discover biology
The Ecology and Evolution of Organisms
Class Notes
outline biology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadya Notetaker on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1006 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see The Ecology and Evolution of Organisms in Biology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Chapter 16 Notes  ­speciation is process of making new species through  reproductive isolation of lineages which causes more diversity  ­macroevolution​  is large scale evolution which is caused by  natural selection that causes radical changes in body plan not just  a change in allele frequencies  ­changes on Earth took place for billions of years  ­radioisotopes are unstable forms of elements that decay to  more stable forms at a constant rate over time  ­Earth’s age is 4.6 billion years which is known as geologic time  ­fossils are preserved remains or impressions of individual  organisms that lived in the past  ­usually bones, teeth, and shells preserved in sediment  which harden into rock   ­hard to preserve because most organisms did not die where   sediments form  ­important for studying evolution b/c  it shows past  organisms aren’t like the ones today  ­order of which organisms appear in fossil record support  evolution   ­order only tells the relative age of fossils and which   ones are older  ­carbon­14 helps estimate the age of the fossil better  ­only dates fossils up to 70,000 yrs ago  ­uranium­235 has a half­life of 700 million yrs  ­fossils can still be dated if they don’t have                   radioisotopes by dating rocks around it   ­fossil record is incomplete b/c...  ­most organisms decompose fast after they die  ­most do not form fossils  ­even if they are fossils, erosion, lots of heat or pressure can   destroy it   ­whales are closely related to hoofed mammals  ­pakicetus is an early whale ancestor   ­bones in ankle show that it’s related to hippo, camel, giraffe  ­whales have common ancestor with artiodactyl b/c of the  weird shape of anklebone which helped it on land   ­oldest known rocks are 3.8 billion yrs old  ­cell structures have been found on stromatolites which  existed 3.5 bya (billion yrs ago)  ­first life were prokaryotes  ­eukaryotes formed 2.1 bya  ­2.8 bya, photosynthetic bacteria released oxygen which   began to support eukaryotic life 2.1 bya, once O2 made up   2­3% of atmosphere  ­precambrian period ­​650 mya  ­eart is filled w/ shallow seas w/ plankton   ­protists, small multicellular animals, algae lived in H20  ­soft bodied multicellular animals began to appear  ­cambrian period ­ 540 mya  ­lots of diversity and forms of life appear during the   Cambrian explosion  ​which lasted 5­10 mill. yrs  ­scavengers  + herbivores transformed into   predators  ­adaptive radiation led to diversification of life  ­adaptive radiation = one lineage gives rise to many   descendants    ­devonian period ­ 360 mya  ­earth is covered w/ plants  ­lots of shrubs and trees  ­plants evolved to live on land. how?  ­wateproof cuticle  ­vascular sys. for transport of h20 and nutrient  ­support tissue like wood  ­leaves and roots  ­seeds  ­tree growth form   ­specialized reproductive structure  mycorrhizae​  are mutualistic associations that helped  plants and fungi live on land  ­spiders and millipedes lived 410 mya. insects lived 400 mya.   ­first vertebrates to colonize land were amphibians in 365 mya  which descended from lobe finned fish & then evolved into  reptiles  ­reptiles could reproduce w/out returning to water  ­insects ­­>fish­­>amphibians­­>reptile­­>dinosaur­­>mammal  ­plate tectonicsis the mvmt of continents over time  ­continents float mantle​, hot layer of semisolid rock   ­continents collide to form supercontinents (ex. pangaea)  ­plate tectonics can lead to:   ­geographic isolation which reduces gene flow   ­speciation is promoted  ­affects climate  ­changes flow of oceans   ­heat and moisture is distributed differently  ­We have had 5 mass extinctions where lots of species went  extinct   ­more than half died each time  ­caused by climate change, volcano, asteroid, change in gas  levels in sea/air  ­permian extinction​ occurred 250 mya where lots of sea  animals and insects went extinct  ­cretaceous extinction​ occurred 65 mya where dinosaurs  died which was caused by asteroid collision   ­mass extinction has 2 major impacts  ­entire groups of organisms die  ­lets surviving species experience adaptive radiation  ­studying evo­devo ​or evolutionary developmental biology helps  us understand macroevolution  ­study impact gene expression has on body plans  ­homeotic genes cause the dvlpmt of structure in  embryological dvlpmt (for ex. there is a homeotic gene that  regulates limb dvlpmt by controlling expression of all other genes  for limb growth in embryo   ­not every cell expresses the same genes, different cells will  turn on different set of genes  ­homeotic genes​  are expressed in specific part in embryo  ­atavistic traits and vestigial traits give proof that many body plans  exist b/c of dvlptml changes. atavistic traits represents a reversion  to ancestral state (ex. tails in humans). We don’t have tails  anymore b/c  homeotic genes are turned off :)    ­taxonomy​  is organizing and classifying the array of biodiversity   ­phylogenetics​  is the sorting of organisms  based on  morphological and genetic similarities to make evolutionary trees  ­living  things diversified  lineages or many lines of descent  ­evolutionary trees are vital to understanding lineages  ­node = where ancestral group split into two separate       lineages. it represents the most common ancestor of  two lineages  ­homologous traits are similar characteristics b/c of similar  ancestry (you look more like your sibling than your cousin)  ­shared derived traits are evolutionary novelties shared by  ancestor and descendants but not seen in groups that are not  direct descendants of ancestor  ­linnaean hierarchy was made by Linnaeus to classify organisms  ­species is smallest unit and forms a genus  ­most broad to least broad taxon or group (kingdom, phylum,   class,  order, family, genus, species) KPCOFGS  ­Species genus = Scientific name (ex. Homo sapiens)       


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