discover biology chapter 17 notes
discover biology chapter 17 notes BISC 1006
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadya Notetaker on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1006 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see The Ecology and Evolution of Organisms in Biology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Chapter 17 Notes Biodiversity variety of organisms on earth ranging from genetic variation and behavioral diversity of individual organisms or species through the diversity of ecosystem has 3 parts: genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity there are anywhere from 3100 million species but most estimates fall b/w 330 million 1.7 million have been collected and identified There are 3 domains of life bacteria archaea single celled organisms best known for living in harsh areas eukarya all of the rest of organisms bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes archaeans have lipids in their plasma membrane there are 5 x 10^30 nonillion prokaryotes so many b/c they reproduce so fast w/ binary fission extremophiles = one type of prokaryotes flourish in hot geysers, freezing seas, lightless areas bacterial culture is a lab dish that has bacteria living off of a food supply most prokaryotes are not culturable and can’t be grown in lab prokaryotes have 3 different shapes cocci sphere bacilli rod spirilla corkscrew structural plan of prokaryotes has cell wall around plasma membrane some have capsule made up of polysaccharides that helps some bacteria not go into the immune system surface of some bacteria has hairlike projections or pili (helps attachto surface) some have flagella that helps it move through liquid prokaryotes don’t have a true nucleus, much less DNA mostly has coding DNA used for survival and reproduction of bacteria some form colonies even though it’s single celled social behavior of prokaryotes quorum sensing = communication system that helps microbes coordinate behavior in response to cell density bacteria latch on surface → cover themselves in slime → secrete signals & get more bacteria → divide a lot forming a slimy aggregate called biofilm used to attack immune sys reproduction of prokaryotes split into 2binary fission DNA is parent is copied and one copy is transferred to each daughter cell prokaryotes can take up genetic info from environment lateral gene transfer= transfer of genetic material b/w diff. species trade genetic material through plasmids or extra DNA in cytoplasm can trade DNA through bacterial conjugation transformation s when bacteria dies and cell bursts and releases DNA which can be taken up by another bacteria prokaryotes have metabolic diversity autotrophs = have energy from nonliving things in environment like sunlight/inorganic chem. compounds heterotrophs = consumers and get energy from eating other things or organic matter photoautotrophs = absorb sunlight and take in CO2 EX. cyanobacteria chemoautotrophs = make food from CO2 and energy chemoheterotrophs = obtain energy and carbon from organic molecules photoheterotrophs =use light as an energy source, get carbon from organic material (not from CO2) prokaryotes play important role bacteria and archaea ardecomposers which get nutrients from remains of dead organisms and from urine and feces decomposers help recycle nutrients, break down dead organisms and return them so they can be used again bacteria can help plants nitrogen fixationwho convert nitrogen and convert to ammonia some heterotrophic bacteria help w fermentation or make ATP in low oxygen places also help bioremediation to help clean up environmental pollution some bacteria cause disease. no archaea arpathogens endotoxin is part of a bacterial cell wall which causes illness like fever, blood clot exotoxin s poison that organism releases into surrounding and disrupt cellular process or damage cell structures antibioticsre molecules secreted by one microorganism to kill another or slow growth of other are used for bacterial infection fungi secretes these when competing in a niche with bacteria and other decomposers can lead to problems: resistance → less options to fight bacteria don’t work against viruses, only work w/ bacteria doesn’t work for cold virus is a microscopic, noncellular infectious particle and are genetic material wrapped in proteins can have DNA, reproduce, evolve much smaller than a cell has DNA or RNA in protein some have envelope or lipid layer enclosing genetic material or protein lack many features for homeostasis, reproduction, metabolism and so they hijack other cell’s metabolism variant forms of virus is caliral strainsor serotypes tend to be host specific but some of them can jump from different species why can ppl get the flu yr after yr? it evolves into new strains and older drugs can’t help fight new strain
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