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discover biology chapter 17 notes

by: Nadya Notetaker

discover biology chapter 17 notes BISC 1006

Marketplace > George Washington University > Biology > BISC 1006 > discover biology chapter 17 notes
Nadya Notetaker
GPA 3.8

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outlined all of chapter 17. hope it helps :)
The Ecology and Evolution of Organisms
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadya Notetaker on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1006 at George Washington University taught by Scully in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see The Ecology and Evolution of Organisms in Biology at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Chapter 17 Notes   ­Biodiversity ­​ variety of organisms on earth ranging from genetic  variation and behavioral diversity of individual organisms or  species through the diversity of ecosystem   ­has 3 parts: genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem        diversity  ­there are anywhere from 3­100 million species but most  estimates fall b/w 3­30 million  ­1.7 million have been collected and identified  ­There are 3 domains of life  ­bacteria   ­archaea ­ single  celled organisms best known for living in   harsh areas   ­eukarya ­ all of the rest of organisms  ­bacteria and archaea  are prokaryotes   ­archaeans have lipids in their plasma membrane   ­there are 5 x  10^30 nonillion prokaryotes  ­so many b/c they reproduce so fast w/ binary fission  ­extremophiles  = one type of prokaryotes flourish in hot   geysers, freezing seas, lightless areas   ­bacterial culture is a lab dish that has bacteria living off of a food  supply   ­most ​prokaryotes​  are not culturable and can’t be grown in   lab  ­prokaryotes have 3 different shapes   ­cocci ­ sphere  ­bacilli ­ rod  ­spirilla ­ corkscrew     ­structural plan of prokaryotes  ­has cell wall around plasma membrane  ­some have capsule made up of polysaccharides that helps  some bacteria not go into the immune system  ­surface of some bacteria has hairlike projections or pili  (helps attachto surface)  ­some have  flagella that helps it move through liquid  ­prokaryotes don’t have a true nucleus, much less DNA   ­mostly has coding DNA used for survival and  reproduction of bacteria   ­some form colonies even though it’s single celled  ­social behavior of prokaryotes  ­quorum sensing​  = communication system that helps   microbes coordinate behavior in response to cell density  ­bacteria latch on surface → cover themselves in   slime → secrete signals & get more bacteria  → divide a lot forming a slimy aggregate called   biofilm  ­used to attack immune sys  ­reproduction of prokaryotes  ­split into 2​binary fission  ­DNA is parent is copied and one copy is transferred  to each daughter cell  ­prokaryotes can take up genetic info from environment  ­lateral gene transfer= transfer of genetic material   b/w diff. species  ­trade genetic material through plasmids or extra DNA in   cytoplasm  ­can trade DNA through​ bacterial conjugation  ­transformation s when bacteria dies and cell bursts and   releases DNA which can be taken up by another bacteria   ­prokaryotes have metabolic diversity   ­autotrophs = have energy from nonliving things in   environment like sunlight/inorganic chem. compounds  ­heterotrophs = consumers and get energy from eating  other things or organic matter  ­photoautotrophs = absorb sunlight and take in CO2   EX. cyanobacteria   ­chemoautotrophs = make food from CO2 and energy   ­chemoheterotrophs = obtain energy and carbon from   organic molecules  ­photoheterotrophs =use light as an energy source, get   carbon from organic material (not from CO2)  ­prokaryotes play important role  ­bacteria and archaea ardecomposers  which get   nutrients from remains of dead organisms and from urine  and feces  ­decomposers help recycle  nutrients, break down   dead organisms and return them so they can   be used again   ­bacteria can help plants nitrogen fixationwho convert   nitrogen and convert to ammonia   ­some heterotrophic bacteria help w fermentation or   make ATP in low oxygen places  ­also help  bioremediation to help clean  up   environmental pollution  ­some bacteria cause disease. no archaea arpathogens    ­endotoxin is part of a bacterial cell wall which causes   illness like fever, blood clot  ­exotoxin ​s poison that organism releases into surrounding  and disrupt cellular process or damage cell structures  ­antibiotics​re molecules secreted by one microorganism  to kill another or slow growth of other are used for   bacterial infection  ­fungi secretes these when competing in a niche with   bacteria and other decomposers  ­can lead to problems:   ­resistance → less options to fight bacteria   ­don’t work against viruses, only work w/ bacteria  ­doesn’t work for cold  ­virus is a microscopic, noncellular infectious particle and are  genetic material wrapped in proteins  ­can  have DNA, reproduce, evolve  ­much smaller than a cell   ­has DNA or RNA in protein  ­some have envelope or lipid layer enclosing genetic   material or protein  ­lack many features for homeostasis, reproduction,  metabolism and so they hijack other cell’s metabolism  ­variant forms of virus is cal​iral strainsor serotypes   ­tend to be host specific but some of them can jump from  different species  ­why can ppl get the flu yr after yr? it evolves into new  strains and older drugs can’t  help fight new strain       


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