Ionian Enlightenment CHE 102-010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cindy Le on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 102-010 at Illinois State University taught by Thomas Zona in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 280 views. For similar materials see Chemistry & Society in Chemistry at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Ionian Enlightenment Thales, 585 BC Proposed water was basic stuff Anaximander, 565 BC Thought that the ultimate stuff couldn’t be identified w/ any known thing; called Aperion or boundless Anaximenes, 545 BC Thought air was the basic material; all manifest matter was the result of “refraction” or “condensation” World was understandable in terms of natural phenomena “Stuff in the world” must be composed of the same “substance” Zeno’s Paradox (Zeno of Elia) Series of paradoxes to explain infinity Denies possibility of motion from one point to another Is matter discrete or continuous? Democritus of Abdena Father of atomism Idea that there is an ultimate, uncuttable constituent of all matter “Nothing exists but atoms and the void. All else is opinion” Aristotle Founder of formal logic Found the idea od the void rationally repugnant and matter was continuous 5 basic elements: earth, fire, water, air, and the aether Basic logic and scientific method Humans get conclusions by logical process using arguments Argument 1: If an obj. is a car, then it has wheels. That obj. has wheels, therefore it is a car Invalid Induction Inferring a general principle based on specific obs. “If A, then B. B, therefore A” (B A) Argument 2: if an obj. is a car, it has wheels. That obj. is a car, therefore it has wheels Valid Deduction Specific conclusion based on general principle. “If A, then B. A, therefore B” (A B) Not A ∴ Not B (invalid) Not B ∴ Not A (valid) Production of wine Mash is made from harvested grapes Fermentation Grape sugars > ethanol from natural yeasts from grape skins Skins removed, wine is aged Louis Pasteur Compared spoiled and unspoiled wine Platelike microscopic objs. in sediment of both wines Rodshaped objs. in spoiled wine What if…? Little shapes are microscopic organisms Plateshaped organism involved in fermentation Rodshaped org, implicated spoilage Then…. Killing all organism in seal bottle (by gentle heating) after fermentation but before aging, should eliminate spoiling Pasteur’s logic If hypothesis (general description) is true, then experiment should work If H, then E Experiment (specific obs.) “works”, therefore hypothesis is true E, therefore H.
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