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Ionian Enlightenment

by: Cindy Le

Ionian Enlightenment CHE 102-010

Cindy Le
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About this Document

This covers the first week of lectures of Chemistry 102
Chemistry & Society
Thomas Zona
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cindy Le on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 102-010 at Illinois State University taught by Thomas Zona in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 280 views. For similar materials see Chemistry & Society in Chemistry at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
 Ionian Enlightenment  Thales, 585 BC  Proposed water was basic stuff  Anaximander, 565 BC  Thought that the ultimate stuff couldn’t be identified w/ any known thing;  called Aperion or boundless  Anaximenes, 545 BC  Thought air was the basic material; all manifest matter was the result of  “refraction” or “condensation”  World was understandable in terms of natural phenomena  “Stuff in the world” must be composed of the same “substance”  Zeno’s Paradox (Zeno of Elia)  Series of paradoxes to explain infinity  Denies possibility of motion from one point to another  Is matter discrete or continuous?  Democritus of Abdena  Father of atomism  Idea that there is an ultimate, uncuttable constituent of all matter  “Nothing exists but atoms and the void. All else is opinion”  Aristotle  Founder of formal logic  Found the idea od the void rationally repugnant and matter was continuous   5 basic elements: earth, fire, water, air, and the aether  Basic logic and scientific method  Humans get conclusions by logical process using arguments  Argument 1: If an obj. is a car, then it has wheels. That obj. has wheels,  therefore it is a car  Invalid  Induction  Inferring a general principle based on specific obs.  “If A, then B. B, therefore A” (B  A)  Argument 2: if an obj. is a car, it has wheels. That obj. is a car, therefore it has wheels  Valid  Deduction  Specific conclusion based on general principle.  “If A, then B. A, therefore B” (A B)  Not A  ∴  Not B (invalid)  Not B  ∴  Not A (valid)  Production of wine  Mash is made from harvested grapes  Fermentation  Grape sugars ­> ethanol from natural yeasts from grape skins  Skins removed, wine is aged  Louis Pasteur  Compared spoiled and unspoiled wine  Plate­like microscopic objs. in sediment of both wines  Rod­shaped objs. in spoiled wine  What if…?  Little shapes are microscopic organisms  Plate­shaped organism involved in fermentation  Rod­shaped org, implicated spoilage  Then….  Killing all organism in seal bottle (by gentle heating) after fermentation but  before aging, should eliminate spoiling  Pasteur’s logic  If hypothesis (general description) is true, then experiment should work  If H, then E  Experiment (specific obs.) “works”, therefore hypothesis is true  E, therefore H.


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