Week 1 Biology Notes (January 11-15, 2016)
Week 1 Biology Notes (January 11-15, 2016) BIOL 10003
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaley Hicks on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Sawey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Issues in Biology in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Before Class Notes on Prostate Cancer Article The prostate a walnutsize gland sitting athwart the erethra in front of the rectum produces uid that propels and accompanies sperm on its voyage outside the body As men age it can become enlarged and it is prone to develop tumors Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in men after skin cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer Once it spreads to the bones it is incurable Deaths from prostate cancer is expected to decrease can be attributed to better diagnosis and treatment Unlike lung cancer the risk factors for prostate cancer are mostly either unknown or unavoidable Age is the main one People with a family history of the disease are at higher risk as are African Americans and farmers In diagnosis the big breakthrough of the last 20 years was the development of a simple test fo prostate speci c antigen PSA a protein whose blood level re ects changes in the prostate o PSA readings about 4 are cause for concern but a reading over 25 may be suspicious for a man in his 405 Many different approaches for treatment 0 Radical Prostatectomy The removal of the prostate through conventional open surgery the gold standard against which other treatments are measured Side effects ncude partial loss of control over the bladder and sexual impotence D It is almost impossible to remove the prostate without causing at least some damage 0 Laparoscopic Surgery Operating through a small incision guiding their instruments by a video doctors minimize the loss of blood and scarring and patients typically resume their routines sooner often within days rather than weeks Incontinence impotence and bowl complications remain common side effect 0 Radiation This can be administered either externally by a focused beam or by ricegrainsize seeds of a radioactive isotope inserted directly into the prostate Easier and cheaper than surgery and requires almost no recovery time Disadvantage it may not eliminate all the tumor cells and the tissue damage it causes may make future surgery impossible Radiation is often the choice of older men who can accept the risk that the tumor might grow back in 15 years 0 Hormone Therapy Prostate tumors thrive on testosterone and drugs that eliminate or block the hormone seems to shrink them This is the treatment of choice for men whose cancer has spread beyond the prostate By itself though it never cures cancer after a period of remission which may last years cancer typically recurs Hormones can also be used in combination with radiation therapy for tumors that are still con ned to the prostate as an alternative to surgery 0 Diet and Lifestyle Change Famously stringent regime limiting fat to 10 of total calories three hours of exercise a week plus mediation and support group session 0 Watchful Waiting Often the recommendation for men older than 75 or 80 who are less able to withstand the rigors of treatment and likely to die of something else rst anyway January 12 2016 Class Notes 0 Aristotle 384 BC 322 BC 0 Biological studies have been going on for 2000 years Scientific Methodology 0 Observation D Hypothesis D Tests of Hypotheses educated guesses D results TwoGroup Experimental Design 0 Identify the variable which will test the hypotheses Control Group given placebo the variables being tested is absent 0 Experimental Group given drug the variable being tested is present PseudoScience A system of ideas or misconceptions about science 0 cannot prove things with science Dietary Supplements 0 Not regulated by FDA January 14 2016 Class Notes Prostate Cancer Pathway of Sperm Seminiferous tubules D stored in epididymis Accessory Glands Seminal olands Mucus amp fructose nourishment for sperm Prostate glands Thin milky white uid that contains nutrients for sperm Bulbourethral glands cowpers clear lubricating uid that is alkaline and neutralizes the avid environment of the penile erethra Semen Sperm from testicles Mae Hormones Hormones chemical regulators l controls things in body It is the brain doing the controlling hypothalamus Testosterone does a lot not just produce sperm lf levels drop hypothalamus responds and pituitary gland releases LH amp FSH 0 Target gland testes they make more testosterone Prostate Cancer 2nCI most common form of cancer in men to skin cancer Spread of Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer can kill if the cells leave the prostate and spread throughout the body mestatized Risk Factors 0 Age family history African Americans farmers Factors not causing Prostate Cancer Vastectomies Bicycling sexual frequency Detection of Prostate Cancer 0 Digital rectal exam best doctors can only detect at stage B PSA test Prostate Surgery Radical prostectomy removal of prostate gland Nervesparing prostatectomy Side Effects of Surgeries Incontinence most men eventually regain control of bladder function Other Treatments Radiation Treatments Radiation Seed Implants Side Effects of Radiation Less recovery time can eliminate sexual function cannot have surgery after Hormone Therapy 0 Can impair sexual function and cause hot swells irritability Watchful Waiting 0 Recommendation for men 75 to 80 years of age
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