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# Class Note for MATH 294A with Professor Savitt at UA

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KARMA
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
Induction Ksenija Simic Muller and Matt Ondrus Feb 287 2007 Example 1 Every positive integer n can be expressed as n 00 0121 0222 CM2M for some M 2 07 where 01 E 01 for all 239 Example 2 Note This is an example of a wrong proof Suppose that S Z21 7 Z is a function with the property that Sn 557171 7 6Sn 7 27 where 51 9 and 52 20 Prove that Sn 3 2 3 Example 3 Suppose you are given a square checkerboard with side length 2 and with one missing square Prove that the remaining squares on the board can be tiled with trominos Note that a tromino is an object shaped like Problem 1 A winning con guration in the game of MiniTetris is a complete tiling of a 2 gtlt 71 board using only the three shapes shown below g Prove that the number of winning con gurations on a 2 gtlt n MiniTetris board 71 2 1 is Tn 2m1 1 3 Problem 2 We are given a chocolate bar with m gtlt 71 squares of chocolate7 and our task is to divide it into mn individual squares We are only allowed to split one piece of chocolate at a time using a vertical or a horizontal break For example7 suppose that the chocolate bar is 2 gtlt 2 The rst split makes two pieces7 both 2 gtlt 1 Each of these pieces requires one more split to form single squares This gives a total of three splits Use strong induction to conclude the following Theorem To divide up a chocolate bar with m gtlt n squares7 we need mm 7 1 splits Problem 3 You begin with a stack of 71 boxes Then you make a sequence of moves In each move7 you divide one stack of boxes into two nonempty stacks The game ends when you have n stacks7 each containing a single box You earn points for each move in particular7 if you divide one stack of height a b into two stacks with heights 1 and b7 then you score ab points for that move Your overall score is the sum of the points that you earn for each move What strategy should you use to maximize your total score Problem 4 Prove that consecutive Fibonacci numbers are always relatively prime Problem 5 Show that every positive integer can be expressed uniquely as the sum of distinct7 non consecutive Fibonacci numbers here7 non consecutive means that no two of the Fibonacci numbers in the sum are consecutive Fibonacci numbers Problem 6 Let n 2k Prove that we can select 71 integers from any 271 7 1 integers such that their sum is divisible by 71 Problem 7 Prove that if you triangulate a convex n gon7 then there are at least two vertices of degree two Note Think of a convex n gon as a graph consisting of n vertices and n edges arranged in a cycle To triangulate an n gon is to join non adjacent vertices with edges in such a way that no edges cross each other and all of the resulting faces are triangles Problem 8 Let Sn denote the number of strings of length 71 built from the alphabet H7 T that do not contain the substring HH Prove that 53 S 1 Sn 54 17 SM 10gtlt 2 H 10gtlt 2 i Problem 9 Prove that the faces of a planar graph can be colored with two colors so that no two adjacent faces are the same color iff all of its vertices have even degree Problem 10 In an m gtlt 71 matrix of real numbers7 we mark at least p ofthe largest numbers 10 S m in every column7 and at least q of the largest numbers 1 S n in every row Prove that at least pq numbers are marked twice Problem 11 Putnam7 1972 Show that7 for all n gt 17 71 does not divide 2 7 1 Problem 12 There are no positive integer solutions of x4 14 22 Hint You need to know that every positive integer solution of a2 b2 02 where a7b7 and c are relatively prime can be expressed in terms of two relatively prime numbers m7 and n where a m2 7 7127 b 277m7 and c m2 712

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