Class Note for MIC 205A at UA
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Prokaryotes Functional Anatomy Prokaryotes Cell walls usually peptidoglycan a complex polysaccharide Divide by binary ssion No internal membranebound organelles lnclude bacteria and archaea no peptidoglycan Unicellular TOPICS External structures Cell Envelope lnternal Structures Cell Shapes Arrangement and Sizes Classification Archaea Bio lms Sumnul envumninme m n or non msau DNA mnluwlas DNA a gauallts and hequotle mme call and codes rm ins all Wale are hollow appendage m DNA to arherccll Omar memhrne Extra membrane similar to CE membrane but am onnlammg lpopoiy ros low at malswais and is Wm FlmbnakFllVE Millike mlsnes eneuamq from me cell mace mar hel m adivesiun m WW cells and smiacas Cell wailiA semrngui casing mar nowdes stmclmel swoon and Shane rm live cell cytoplasmiwmevrhased sulmm Iqu me entire cell External Structures Flagella Pili and mbriae Glycocalyx Flagella Flagella singlular flagellum Composed of protein subunits Motility chemotaxis Varied arrangement Monotrichous single flagellum Lophotrichous small bunches Amphitrichous both poles of the cell Peritrichous randomly over cell surface Flagella Structure 4 Basal body Cell wall Attractant a if tr 11 rquot at e b Repellent Increasing concentration Tumble N Flun Rod 5 Cell membrane Swarming Proteus sp on blood agar platiil Proteus vulgars Swarm i ng Axial Filament of Spirochetes Spirochete bacteria have their flagella embedded in the membrane Diagnostic Use of Flagella H antigen differs within a species and can be used to distinguish a serovar serotype Example E coli 0157H7 makes a potent toxin that causes gastroenteritis Pili singl pilus Pili Fimbriae singl fimbria Fimbriae Fimbriae are used for attachment pin are used for mating conjugation Antibodies to fimbriae block attachment DNA transmission to another cell Glycocalyx Polysaccharide or polypeptide coat that Functions Of Glycocalyx surrounds cells also called extracellular polysaccharide EPS Virulence factor disease severity Made inside cell and secreted avoid phagocytosis being engulfed and mmmm killed by white blood cells Attachment to surfaces Syntrophic metabolism in biofilm Protection from drying virUSGS antibiotics Provide nutrients Inside Of EBII cytoplasm Slime Layer EPS Capsule Capsule organized EPS tightly attached to cell wall Inhibits phagocytosis virulence factor Slime layer unorganized loosely attached to cell wall Attachment blocks phagocytosis Biofilm a microbial community attached to a surface May be one or several organisms Environmental Biofilms Mycella mantle b Eclomycorrhiza The mycelial mantle of a typical ectomycorrhilal lungus surrounding a eucalyptus Environmental Biofilms What do cows and termites have in common Environmental Biofilms Access manhole Perforate pipes a Overall plan Most soluble organic matter ls disposed of by percolation into the soil coayriglntmml ummxEdutainin in MA alwnglie39urmivcum39mm Infectious Disease Biofilms Infectious Disease Biofilms On implants 3quot n 3 i 39 3 5 t urce39 Emmy Infect Dis 1 2002 Come for Dmm Conuol and Fmvomlon CDC Some Medically Important Bio lms CDC estimate 65 of human bacterial infections Dental plaque Infectious kidney stones Endocarditis Catheters Cystic F brosis shape Cytoplasmic plasma membrane Cell Wall classification Cell Envelope I a 09quot is Q I f I E Cell Wall Located just outside plasma membrane Functions maintains cell shape protects cell from rupturing when water pressure is higher inside cell anchors flagella Differentiated by Gram stain Peptidoglycan PG Repeating disaccharide of N acetylglucosamine NAG and n acetylmuramic acid NAM Cross linked by polypeptides Penicillin blocks peptidoglycan cross linking Lysozyme breaks peptidoglycan swam b An idealized View ol the molecular pattern of peptidoglycan lt chains contains alternating l glycans G and M bound together in long strands The G stands for N 56 39 39 acetyl glucosamine and 7 the M stands for Nracetyl ESE muramic acid n e 7 Q molecule binds to an r t r adjoining muramlc acid in 92 on a parallel chain by I 39 I means of a cross linkage f f of peptides Peptide crosslinks A muramic acid L ow ram c A detailed VIeW of the links between the muramic acids Tetrapeptide chains branching off the muramic acids connect by interbridges also composed ol amino acids The types of amino acids in the interbridge can vary and it may be lacking entirely gramv negative cells It is this linkage that provtdes ngld yet exible support to the cell and that may be targeted by drugs like penicillin Tetrapepttde l li alanine L alanine llkglutarnate L l sine D glutamate I Y L lyslne glycine 39 Dalanlne glycine iglyclne D alanine lycine lyclne t r Interbridge Gram Positive Cell Wall Many layers of peptidoglycan Teichoic acid Regulate positive ion flow Protect wall from breakdown Antigen speci city of cells cmmw my kymmvw m Uvolnlcholc acm Yclcholc acid Peplxdaglynan Pmlalnsmlc A space Gram cell envelope httpwwwarchesugaedukristenccellwallhtml Gram Negative Cell Wall Thin peptidoglycan no teichoic acid Outer membrane OM contains lipopolysaccharide LPS endotoxin 0 antigen Protects cell from penicillin lysozyme Contains porins that form channels to allow passage of nutrients LPS meemwmpmmmmng Q Gram cell envelope Inn973 ptan nmrarvraquot Puma may Gram Positive and Negative Cell Walls GmmFasitivu mm 5le Fevlidnalvc n Cytoplasmic membrane Atypical Cell Walls 39 Lipid bilayer Mycobacteria mm Phoispholipids TB leprosy i Proteins ery thick outer i Functions layer 39 ac39d Regulates transport Slow nutrient Site of ATP synthesis exchange Slow growth Atypical Cell Walls Damage to Cell Walls Digested by lysozyme Gram positive bacteria become protoplasts lyse in distilled water by osmotic lysis Gram negative cells become spheroplasts Mycoplasma lack cell wall pleiotropic To Be Continued Copyrighl i The MUGMW39HIU Corriuanies ll PENINst required tor Wplcducllun or Ulspldy Mutation or chemical treatment titti 39giycan Ce e quotb39aquote Internal Stru ctu res i 9739 Gram Cell membrane gt mg 35 Positive 39 enigma 139 5 P t quot t Cell shapes and arrangements 3 Classification Outer membrane I Outer membrane Gram Negative quot Peptidoglyca a Cell membrane 39 Cell membrane v gt 39 Spheroplast 1 Peptidoglycan quot quot lost D
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