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HNR 247 Notes from Week 1

by: Julia Dang

HNR 247 Notes from Week 1 HNR 247

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > OTHER > HNR 247 > HNR 247 Notes from Week 1
Julia Dang
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About this Document

Notes from class from lecture 1 and 2
Molecules of Life in Perspective
Dr Debra Burg
Class Notes
honors, Molecules of Life, Science




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Dang on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HNR 247 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr Debra Burg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Molecules of Life in Perspective in OTHER at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
1/12/16 HNR 247 1. Why biotechnology? a. When you understand what the different molecules do, you can learn to manipulate them- changing what they do. 2. Living vs. Nonliving things a. Living things: i. Living need energy and the ability to extract energy from the environment. ii. Respond to stimuli iii. Ability to reproduce iv. Have cell membrane that separates them from their environment (barrier) 1. Cell walls are always outside the membrane 2. Wall- structure; membrane- defines space. 3. Prokaryote a. Bacteria b. Before nucleus c. Single cell d. Cell is single compartment (membrane surrounds everything like the nucleoid, which is a clump of DNA, there’s no real boundary around it to make it a compartment) e. Simple in comparison to the eukaryote f. Can divide every 20min 4. Eukaryote a. Everything else (single celled organisms- ex. Yeast-; multi-celled organisms; ) b. True nucleus c. Many compartments/vesicles (surrounded by membrane and can move around the cell) d. 10x larger than prokaryotes e. divide every 18-24hrs 5. The cells themselves a. Every cell in the body has blood vessels that allow for nutrients to get absorbed into the cell. b. They move to the extremities of our body through the blood. i. Drugs can inhibit new blood vessel formations to kill tumors and such. 6. Model system: a. It’s not logical to make humans sick to study how the disease starts so we use these b. We use animals like mice; flies; bacteria, worms; fish. c. We find the similarities with less complex systems and theorize what it’ll be like in a human- something much more complicated d. STIPULATION EXAMPLE: Sometimes it’s difficult because you can infect monkeys with HIV, but they don’t get ill like humans do- not everything carries over when you look at humans. 1-14-16 HNR 247 A. Biomolecules a. Molecules: chemical compounds in it’s simplest form i. If you broke them down any further, they wouldn’t have the same components 1. Ex. H2O broken down changes it’s properties. B. Building blocks to living organisms a. Monomers= building blocks- the subunits that can be put together to make different lengths of polymers i. Lipids 1. Not polymers 2. Have one side attracted to water, one not. 3. Double bond= puts a bend. a. When it’s saturated, it’s straight. When it’s unsaturated, it bends at that part. b. Saturated: pack tighter and they tend to be solid c. Unsaturated: tend to be liquid (tend to be healthier) more fluidity. 4. Phospholipid a. Contains a polar head group: Phosphate (negative charge) b. Contains a lipid tail: Connected at the head by glycerol 5. Hydrophilic: interacts with water 6. Hydrophobic: avoids water 7. Micelle: single layer of lipids a. Heads out b. Tails in 8. Bilayer: Two layers of micelles 9. Lipids form membranes to separate the cell contents from the surrounding environment. a. What can pass a membrane? i. Water ii. Gasses iii. Small molecules iv. Hydrophobic molecules (ex. Steroids) b. When proteins are transporters, you can control the flow in or out, but you need to be selective. i. How to be selective? 1. Attraction model/binding 2. Size 3. They can’t be any old protein, they should be specific. c. Membrane fusion: They can fuse together and bud. (like soap bubbles coming together and forming a bigger one) i. Endocytosis: 1. Bind bacteria, pull in that membrane, and then the bacteria is trapped in the cell and then it forms a vesicle. 2. Once vesicle meets with lysosome, they fuse together, release the enzymes in the lysosome and they destroy the bacteria. ii. Exocytosis: The bacteria is inside the cell, it gets close to the edge and leaves iii. Budding: The bacteria gets near the edge of the cell while inside it, then it pinches off and is outside the cell. Bacteria then has it’s own membrane. b. Polymers: a bunch of monomers put together- monomers must be universal and be able to attach to each other. i. Proteins 1. Amino acids are monomers (building blocks) that form proteins. a. H: 1 bond b. N: 3 Bonds c. C: 4 bonds d. O: 2 bonds e. The “R” can be anything. 2. Dehydration: Losing the water 3. Hydrolysis: Adding water. 4. You want to break down proteins when: a. You don’t want them anymore b. When you want to scrap them for something else (amino acids are used to make something else) 5. 4 Levels of structure: a. Primary structure: one direction (one line) b. Secondary structure i. Helical structure ii. Pleated structure c. Tertiary structure i. Mixture of helical and pleated to fit into anything d. Quatemary structure: i. made to carry out a function- also a combo of structures 6. To insert the protein into a membrane (lipid) what kind of properties does the protein need to stay hooked into the membrane? a. You remove the tail and the membrane contains the hydrophobic part and the hydrophilic part leaves. ii. Carbohydrates iii.


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