Psychology 1001 Week 1 Notes
Psychology 1001 Week 1 Notes PSYC1001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephen Black on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC1001 at University of Cincinnati taught by John Holden in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Psychology 1001 Red-Definition Bold- Important word or concept Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology and History of Psychology 4 Basic Perspectives in the field of Psychology • Psychodynamic • Behavioral • Cognitive • Evolutionary Psychology- The Scientific Study of Thought and Action Psychology applies research to everyday practices and creates studies to find causes of behavior Philosophical Origins of Psychology Plato: believed true knowledge was innate; arrived at through introspection. If proper questions were asked then the answers would be known. Thought that answers were only in the mind and that the highest level of answer and intellect came from inside the mind. Aristotle: Directly examined nature and discovered that knowledge is not independent of nature. Rene Descartes: Discovered that no two philosophers agreed so he adopted his own guidelines for a “truth” quest Came up with 4 ideas 1.Avoid prejudice of ideas. 2.“Divide and conquer” problems. 3.Begin with simplest problems, end with most difficult. 4.4. Be complete and through, omit nothing. Cogito Ergo Sum (I think therefore I am) Wilhelm Wundt: Considered father of scientific psychology and established the first psychology laboratory Devised a “Thought Meter” Discovered that “thinking” took time • Sought to understand consciousness by scientific means • Introspection: Looking inward and reporting on one’s conscious experience • Subjects reported everything that went through their minds when presented with a stimulus or task Edward Titchener: • Structuralism- Exclusive focus on indexing the contents of the mind using introspection • Goal was to create a periodic table of the elements of the human consciousness • No two laboratories agreed William James: • Functionalism- Influenced by Evolutionary Theory: Emphasized the function of psychological process in helping individuals adapt to their environment Our thoughts and actions are generated by our need to cope with our environment; • The idea to run away is a ‘function” of perceiving a threat; • Revolutionary: Psychology suddenly became a practical science Mary Whiton Calkins • William James taught at Harvard and granted her a PhD • First female PhD, she attended Harvard unofficially, as it was a male only school • She enrolled in James’s psychology seminar, and all men dropped out! • She focused on memoey research and invented the paired-associate memory technique; • Later in her career, she focused what would now be called personality & self-psychology • Humans have asked “psychological” questions since the beginning of recorded history Both evolutionary theory and the adoption of measurement practices of early physicists and astronomers gave rise to a practical disclipline that is now largely independent of its origins in philosophy
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