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AMH2020 Reconstruction

by: Valentina Orrego

AMH2020 Reconstruction AMH2020

Marketplace > History > AMH2020 > AMH2020 Reconstruction
Valentina Orrego

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Notes for weeks 1 and 2, which cover the period of reconstruction.
United States History since 1865
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Valentina Orrego on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2020 at a university taught by Dr.Noll in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Reconstruction 1/11/15 April 1, 1865  The Civil War is over, the south has lost. Abraham Lincoln dies within one week  Reconstruction o The bond between the north and the south. Reconstructing the south, physically. o Restore the nation; bring back the 11 states that left the nation. This is done by implementing amendments in the United States. o Slavery- by the end of the civil war the war was fought for 2 reasons. One to end slavery.  4 million slaves had been freed. The slaves had been freed without compensation. They were worth 2.5 billion dollars (1865 money) today worth 40 billion.  Angry white people in the south lol  Debate whether the ex slaves will be full-fledged citizens. Will they have the right to vote, get married, quite a job?  Reconstruction takes place in D.C o Reconstruction also takes place in the south  African Americas want land; this gives them independence from whites or former slave owners. o “40 acres and a mule” o Cannot happen because the land must first be taken from the white plantation owners. o Land is not granted to African Americans o 10% of African Americans during reconstruction manage to scrape money and buy land.  In addition to wanting land, African Americans want the right to vote. o Want the ability to move around.  Movement provides economic opportunity  Movement to find family  When blacks do move, whites think they are moving to not work.  Vagrancy - whites believe they are moving around because they are lazy  April 1865 Lincoln is assassinated. o New president- Andrew Johnson  Southern democrat  Pushes for a reconstruction policy in which blacks do not have a voice. o 13 amendment- slavery is abolished (1865) o By the end of 1865 Johnson has allowed the southern states to join the union. o When southern states apply to be in the union in December of 1865, 58 who served in the confederate army apply to govern. Alexander Stephens, former vice president of the confederacy. o Although slavery is abolished, southerners make laws that keep blacks closer to slavery as possible.  Black codes are established in 1865- recognize that slavery is abolished but does not recognize that blacks are not equal or allowed to vote.  Johnson v. Republicans  In 1865 government establishes the Freedmen’s Bureau o Aids blacks in education, finding jobs. o Johnson vetoes but congress over passes the veto  Congress establishes a new form of reconstruction in the south, because they did not trust white southerners.  Military reconstruction o Blacks will be allowed to vote and protected by the government.  Johnson vetoes this  In 1868 Johnson is impeached  The house impeaches, the senate tries him but does not remove him from office.  Congress now has the power in the south th th  Congress passes the 14 and 15 amended (no amendment since 1804)  The 14 amendment gives citizenship to anyone born in the United States and gives equal protection and due process. 1/13/15  Federal presence in the south ensures that the 13, 14, and 15 amendments are not violated. o Military soldiers are stationed in the south to ensure that blacks are not attacked or violated. o Freedmen’s Bureau- federal agency established by congress to aid African Americans. Provide schools, and general help. With this, African Americas feel some form of hope.  Sharecropping o Arises during reconstruction. o Sharecropping starts off as a compromise, however by the 1880s it turns into a form of control. o The south remains growing cotton (king cotton) o The land is divided up among different African Americans.  Ideally they are renting part of the land, in this situation blacks are paying in exchange of the cotton the have grown. o 2 problems  The price of cotton is reducing, since cotton is now being grown worldwide.  Although the price of cotton is reducing, white southerners still remain in the cotton industry. This allows them to still have control over the lives of African Americans. o African Americas do not remain slaves but tied to the land. 10% of blacks manage to buy their own land.  1865-1877 o Blacks are allowed to vote.  Southern republicans constitute of o Freedmen o Poor white southerners (scalawags) o Northern whites who came down to the south after the civil war. (Carpetbagger)  Abolitionists who want to help blacks  Economic opportunity  The Republican Party takes over in the south.  Some African Americans take office in local and state level.  Josiah T. walls o Serves in congress from 1870- 1876  Mississippi has to black senators, Hiriam Revels. o Takes over Jefferson Davis ex position as a senator  Jonathan Gibbs becomes the secretary of education  Taxes are raised during reconstruction to pay for public needs, like education and fixing roads. o White southerners do not want to pay taxes especially if they are aiding the freedmen. o Southerners will try to win elections.  As reconstruction continues, northerners become less supportive. o As white support for reconstruction ends, white southerners win more power o Violence and intimidation is implemented to ensure the Democratic Party wins election. o  April 1873, Louisiana o The elective government of Colfax is overthrown and shot to death o The Colfax massacre  White southerners return to power  September 1876 o Hamburg South Carolina  Blacks are removed from office and killed.  One white guy was killed, there is a monument for him  By 1876 o Most white southerners are in power (office) o Election of 1876  Tilden v Hayes. Hilden wins the popular vote.  Unsure of SC, La, and FL vote  Commission decides that Hayes has won  In compensation, all southern states become democratic. The presence of military soldiers is removed o Reconstruction is over by this time period; the south has been redeemed, according to white southerners.


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