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HNR 247 Week 2 notes

by: Julia Dang

HNR 247 Week 2 notes HNR 247

Julia Dang
GPA 3.87

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About this Document

These are the notes for 1-19-16 and 1-21-16
Molecules of Life in Perspective
Dr Debra Burg
Class Notes
honors, Science, Molecules of Life
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Dang on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HNR 247 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr Debra Burg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Molecules of Life in Perspective in OTHER at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Lecture 3 1-19-16 HNR 247 A. Monomers need to have the same linkers so you can pick them out and combine them with others. B. Polymers: a whole long stretch of monomers. a. Examples: like legos and kid toys. C. There are 20 amino acids a. For example, if there’s a 300 amino acid long =, then it’s 20^300 possible combinations D. “R groups” are the variation group which gives you different properties. E. How amino acids determine protein folding The pieces that aren’t folding and binding can be binded with other proteins. F. Lipids are made of membranes which contain barriers. G. Proteins: a. for structure i. Lots of the time the cell wall is made of proteins. b. For nutrients c. Enzymes- help reactions happen faster H. Hormones bind to the protein and they send a signal to tell cell what to do I. Receptors: sensors. J. Nucleic acids are monomers that form DNA and RNA. (DNA and RNA are the polymers) K. Universal linkers a. Example: S-P-S-P and the base would be linked to an S. i. We need them on the same side because then those ones hanging off the side are going to link and interact with another ii. L. Carbohydrates: a. Sugars and starches b. Sugars: Major source of energy for the cell c. Can be used with structure. d. Starches are a storage form for sugars. A. BONDS : Chemical forces for forming biomolecules (written strong to weak) a. Covalent bonds: Share electrons i. No charge difference in between the two. ii. Polar covalent bonds: share unequally 1. There’s a difference with who gets most time with the electron. b. Ionic Bonds: Opposites attract c. Hydrogen Bonds: interaction of polar molecules. i. Most commonly, a hydrogen interacts with a nitrogen or an oxygen. d. Hydrophobic forces B. Bond structures: a. Protons (+) and neutrons in the middle b. Electrons (-) on the outside c. 2/8/8 rule i. less electrons ; Same amount of protons as neutrons d. It’s better to have a charge and be unstable because then they can interact with one another and form bonds. e. Shape matters because if you can’t get the interactions close together, they won’t bond and stay together. C. Water structure: a. Liquid: i. To get from ice to liquid, it breaks some of the hydrogen bonds and allows for more movement. b. Ice: i. most densely packed. Every hydrogen interacts with an oxygen. c. Gas: i. Almost no hydrogen bonds. Requires even more heat. d. When you have a glass and fill it with water, the hydrogen bonds keep the bubble of water above the glass’ edge. Then after a while, when you add too much, gravity drags it down. 1-21-16 HNR 247 Lecture 4 A. Discussion on Article of “Fighting Chance” by Mukherjee on John Collier 1. He’s an extremely determined man who is wrapped up in his work. 2. The funding was started by Roosevelt. a. They had a concern that it’d take so much time to develop something and if they don’t have any solutions yet, they’d be criticized- but they wanted to just focus on their research without the extra attention. 3. National Institute of Health (NIH) 4. National Science Foundation (NSF) – basic biology, geology, evolution 5. Once grant is submitted, people peer review- they get the priority score, but you don’t know where the cut off will be. 6. Call for proposal: people who want these grants can really stretch out their proposal and claim that their work fits in with the institute’s missions when it’s actually rather far from it- but who knows, it might cross over fields and give new ideas that are relevant. 7. Why would AIDS research be worth the money even though it’s really expensive? a. We might learn how to slow the process b. May learn how to prevent AIDS c. Researchers can bounce ideas off of each other. d. Giving incentive to people who will cross their fields over and bring forth more perspectives. 8. What is the author’s intent? a. Informing the public- raising awareness. b. Gets you thinking about what people’s reasons are for wanting to do something- money, passion etc etc. It’s all a factor of personality. 9. Translational research: Making things applicable to other services. B. Hydrogen bonds: form between polar molecules. a. Example: Hydrogen bonds are in between the bases of DNA i. The bonds holding the bases together should be weaker so that you can take them apart and reconnect them to form whatever necessary thing you need- like reproduction ii. They’re not actually charged, but it’s because they’re hydrophobic and they’re being pushed together and the bases are so close they form this hydrogen bond. C. Water soluble molecules: a. (That can dissolve in water) b. Example: Salt in water. You need a certain amount of water to dissolve a certain amount of salt because once all of the water molecules are used, the salt can no longer be dissolved. c. With oil on water, the water wants to come together and go toward the opposite charge and the oil is pushed away because it has no way to interact. D. Enzymes: a. Proteins – has a certain shape and a little area to link to other things. b. Facilitators- bring molecules together faster and more efficiently than if they weren’t there. c. In all sorts of reactions d. All have specific functions. e. You can regulate the activity with drugs that mimic the shape of the pocket of the enzyme and sit there. f. You can regulate the production of enzymes. g.


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