Intro to Anthropology, Week 1 notes
Intro to Anthropology, Week 1 notes ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Anthropology 1101 - Week 1 Chapter 1 anthropology – the study of human nature, human society, and the human past holism – a characteristic of the anthropological perspective that describes, at the highest and most inclusive level, how anthropology tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and their activities comparison – a characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to consider similarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible before generalizing about human nature, human society, or human past evolution – a characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature, human society, or the human past in a temporal framework that takes into consideration change over time culture – sets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society together with the material artifacts and structures that human beings create and use; human beings use culture to adapt and to transform the world in which they live biocultural organisms – organisms (in this case, human beings) whose defining features are codetermined by biological and cultural facors material culture – objects created or shaped by human beings and given meaning by cultural practices races – social groupings that allegedly reflect biological differences racism – the systematic oppression of one or more socially defined “races” by another socially defined “race” that is justified in terms of the supposed inherent biological superiority of the rulers and the supposedly biological inferiority of those they rule biological anthropology (physical anthropology) – the specialty of anthropology that looks at human beings as biological organisms and tries to discover what characteristics makes the different from other organisms and what characteristics they share primatology – the study of nonhuman primates, the closest living relatives of human beings paleoanthropology – the search for fossilized remains of humanity’s earliest ancestors cultural anthropology – the specialty of anthropology that shows how variation in the beliefs and behaviors of members of different human groups is shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society (or a culture) sex – observable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans, females and males, needed for biological reproduction gender – the cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex globalization – the reshaping of local conditions by powerful global forces on an ever- intensifying scale cyborg anthropology – a form of anthropological analysis on the notion of animal-machine hybrids, or cyborgs, that offers a new model for challenging rigid social, political, or economic boundaries that have been used to separate people by gender, sexuality, class, and race, boundaries proclaimed by their defenders as “natural” fieldwork – an extended period of close involvement with the people in whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested, during which time anthropologists ordinarily collect most of their data informants – people in a particular culture who work with anthrpologists and provide them with insights about their way of life ethnography – an anthropologist’s written or filmed description of a particular culture ethnology – the comparative study of two or more cultures language – the system of arbitrary symbols used to encode one’s experience of the world and of others linguistic anthropology – the specialty of anthropology concerned with the study of human languages archaeology – a cultural anthropology of the human past involving the analysis of material remains left behind by earlier societies applied anthropology – subfield of anthropology in which anthropologists se information gathered from the other anthropological specialties to solve practical cross-cultural problems medical anthropology – specialty of anthropology that concerns itself with human health, the factors that contribute to disease or illness and the wats that human populations deal with disease or illness science studies – research that explores the interconnections among sociocultural, political, economic, and historic conditions that make scientific research both possible and successful Module 1 myths – stories that recount how various aspects of the world came to be the way they are; the power of myths comes from their ability to make life meaningful for those who accept them; the truth of myths seems self-evident because they effectively integrate personal experiences with a wider set of assumptions about the way society or the world in general, must operate science – the invention of explanations about what things are, how they work, and how they came to be that can be tested against evidence in the world itself assumptions – basic, unquestioned understandings about the way the world works evidence – what is seen when a particular part of the world is examined with great care; scientists use two different kinds of evidence: material and inferred hypothesis – statements that assert a particular connection between fact and interpretation testability – the ability of scientific hypotheses to be matched against nature to see whether they are confirmed or refuted scientific theory – a coherently organized series of testable hypotheses used to explain a body of material evidence objectivity – the separation of observation and reporting from the researcher’s wishes Lecture: January 11, 2016 Scope, Characteristics, Concerns anthropos + logy (greek) (people) (talking) chronology – ways of measuring and recording time why are there many different kinds of people? monogenism – same origin; differences are minor and accidental polygenism – different origins; differences are purposeful and significant concerns of anthropology (essentially, what is human nature?) range of diversity universals of human behavior anthropology – the scientific study of the human species characteristics of anthropology diachronic – change across time comparative holistic (looks at the whole) structure of anthropology biological anthropology o evolution paleoanthropology o diversity cultural anthropology o archaeology o ethnology o linguistics Lecture: January 13, 2016 The Great Chain of Being chain of being universal soul (believed to be perfect) principle of plenitude – everything that can exist does exist; the earth is full principle of continuity o natura nonfacit saltum – nature does not make leaps (latin) principle of unilinear gradation – living things can be organized as “one thing has more of something/is better than others” Ibn Khaldun Gottfried Leibnitz – time, difference, system; suggested different creatures came from common ancestors; chain becomes “family tree” catastrophism – God created catastrophes to cause things like the Grand Canyon Charles Lyell – wrote Principles of Geology (1830); proposed ‘uniformitarianism’ uniformitarianism – the present state of the earth is the result of slow, constant change rather than catastrophic events assumptions o natural laws and processes are uniform in space and time o uniformity of process through time o slow, uniform change over long periods of time
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