Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Bonine at UA
Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Bonine at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
I In rr oduc rion II Syllabus III Expec ra rions IV Biology amp Diversify 24 AugusT 2010 ECOL 182R UofA K E Bonine Kevin Bonine PhD Tucson na rive Universi ry of Arizona undergrad Ecology amp Evolufionar y Biology Economics Universi ry of Wisconsin Madison gradua re Zoology Evolufionar39y Physiology Rep riles amp Amphibians Teaching of UA since 2002 Herpefology Ver febr a re Physiology Conserva rion Biology Sonoran Deser r Discovery Environmenfal Biology Infroducfor39y Biology keboninequoto rquotuar izonaedu BSE113 520 626 0092 Tues 330420pm Wed 1110noon Wi rh you for fall 2010 semes rer 3 Pr39ecepTor39s Erica Beneze ebeneze aT emai Lari zo naedu Rudy Phillips r39udyboy cnquot emai Lari zo naedu Office hours TBA Asya Ro berTs Program CoordinaTor Biology 181182 Office BSE 109 Phone 520 6219267 Fax 520 621 9190 Email asyaemailarizonaedu Office Hours MonThur 10amnoon Fridays by appoinTmenT ETiqueTTe eTc PleaSe siT close To The fronT so class can be more inTerac Hve don39T TexT message do The crossword or read The paper in class There are plenTy of much more comforTable places Than T is room don39T Talk above an occasional whisper unless prompTed To discuss if you come in laTe or leave early keep your backpack 3nd paperrusTling To a minimum and don39T slam The oor pack up your belongings only when lecTure is over 6 Websi l e The course websi l39e is hpd2arizonaeduindexasp Login wi l39h your Ne l39 ID and choose This course from The list Text The 139ex139 is Sadava e139 al Life 16 Science ofBoogyNin139h Edi l39ion Cus139om book available at UA Books139ore Comes wi l h BioPor I39al and complete ebook Temporarily 06 WOW glace 39 FREEMAN For all the Biology resources you need lli BFOFOQTAL To get started you ii need t 1 Register your temp Temporary 2 Purchase the text bun ent Bicgartal cadei will be available in the bookstore next week 3 Register your new permanent access cadefuund on the printed access ft th t d h 39 d is code wiii only be good ror 2 weeks card anlv do so Temporary access To BioPor ral and Sadava Tex r ebook Expres 15 Sep fember39 2010 Use code above Don39T regis rer purchased code unTil This one expires a NOTE button 3 On the next page select quotRegister your Codequot beneath yourtextbook39s title 4 Fill in the requested information note he sure to write down your paslwnrd 5 Click quotNextquot atthe bottom orthe page con rm the information on thefollowing screen and click quotCreate Accountquot to complete the registration process 6 Once you have registered you ca always access your course by logging in at yourBioPortalcom IMPORTANT NO You should NOTregister your new code that you receive with you book uNTlLyourtemporary access expires lwhen you log into portal and nd out tlratyou no longer have access Doing so will result in an error an error message because the system will recognize your email as already associated with a live access code Technical support is available for you and your msuurturs To Free Son 92545599 oma email at techsupponouropup um omm us at hgp 39bfwyub Lumuths ppm PosTed LecTur39e NoTes See The lecTure schedule file under The conTenT Tab on your course DZL websiTe ITems in orange will noT be available online excepT for Today buT They will be presenTed during lecTure NoTe ThaT The slides are numbered I will sTrive To posT The lecTure PDF file on your DZL siTe before lecTure I won39T always succeed Mid rer39m and Final Exams You will have 139hree mid39l39erms worth 100 poin l39s each Your cumula39l39ive final exam will be worth 200 poin l39s Exams will be mostly mul l39iple choice wi l39h possibly 139wo short answer questions No Make Ups If you have a wri H39en excused absence documen l39ed in advance wi l39h Asya Rober l39s your missed exam score will be calculated from your subsequen139 exams 11 Quizzes amp Homework Grade 200700 poin rs from quizzes and homework You will have 23 oppor runi ries To earn 10 poin rs on each of 10 D2l online quizzes 5 pop quizzes in lecture and 8 homework assignmen rs You get To drop your Three lowesT scores You will have a week To complete a quiz excep r lec rure popquizzes or homework assignment NO MAKE UPS OR LATE ASSIGNMENTS Homework NOT To be submi r red via email Homework due at The BEGINNING of lecture DZL Quizzes You have one week to complete online quizzes When you open the quiz you will have two hours to submit your answers before the software does it for you Only your first attempt will be graded You may take the quiz as many additional times as you like for no credit I have put up an ungraded practice quiz for you today 13 Extra Credit Come to my office hours with questions about course material about biologyl Each visit up to the first two nets you 05 extra on your final grade You can therefore earn 7 points total just by coming to my office to talk about biology Tues 330 420 Wed 1110noon in BSE113 Half as much extra credit available for visiting with preceptors But you must come with questions about biology 14 Final Grade Curve Course grades will follow sTandard 90 80 70 60 BUT These percenTages are based on The besT score in The course NOT on The ToTal available poinTs This is more generous To you Than curving OTher Syllabus DeTails Please read your syllabus carefully NoTe The daTe of The midTerms and final exam and be There 182 labs are offered in The spring Appeals WiThdrawals DRC eTc addressed in The syllabus CheaTing is noT a good idea 16 BIOLOGY 182R tail 2010 ECOLBlOCl MCElMIC 182R Bonine11uo 1215 TuesEtThurs Bswsot Starr Dr Kevin Bonine Ecology and Evolutionary Biology ornce ESE l3 Emall kebonlneu arizona edu Of ce Hours Tues 3304 20pm and Wed 1i lGenoon Asya Robens Program Coordinator liltruductloil to Biology l8 IlSZ Moleculari39Celliilar Biology University orAnzona Biological Sciences East Room 109 Phone 520 62179267 Email asyaemail anzona edu Of ce Hours Mon through Thurs lOamrnoons arid Frl by appointment Preceptors Erica Beneze ebenezeemail arizona edu e Rudy Phillips rtidyboyemail arizona edu ornce Hotirs TBA Lab lszn is lectureeonly it you require the hill lBZ course you Wlll need to also take l ZL lab in spring Questions For questions about lecture material or about performance on exams please contact Dr Bonine For administrative questions about lecture please contact Asya Roberts in the course oruce ESE 109 ornce Phone 62179267 during her listed omce hours Website The Course webslte ls htlg ld2l arlZCirla edullrldex asp Logln wllll your Net lD arid Choose this Course tram llle llst Text The text is Sadava et al V Life the Science ufBlDOgys 9 Edition Custom text available at UA Bookstore Comes with access to BioPonal and entire eebook Earlier editions may lack relevant material or be organized differently Use anothertext at your own risk l7 Exams YOU will have Three midterm exams and one cumulative nal exam All exams wlll he closedeboak Calculators are not permitted any anlhmetlc wlll be simple enough 0 be done without a calculator Exams will be mostly multiple choice tormati Wltl l a single correcl answer There may also be up to lwo qtleslioiis per exam requiring snort written answers You Will not be permuted to lake an exam ll you are more llian 20 minutes late for the exam lfyou are unable to be present loran exam for legitimate reasons you must contact Asya Roberts in advance to be excused ii a medical emergency prevents you lrom Coming to an exanli you must contact Asya Rubens as soon as is reasonable lil eilrier case documentation iiill be required Iorniisserl exams othenivise you Wlll receive a zero Any excused absences require written documentation Absences preeappmved by the Dean 039 Students wlll be honored Absences for holidays Or special events observed by organized religions vllll also be honored ior those students who show alriliation With the respective religions ItIlSSetl exams will not be rescheduled Your mean permiinonce across all subsequent exams Ill Hie course Wrl De Subsrllul ed for your missed exam scale when your absence is excused Ullexcused absences IIolll all exam will result In a scale 0 zero for tllal exam The cumulative final exam Wlll be on Tuesday 14 Dec lrom I1 AM 1 PM In SSW 301 You Wlll be expected m take the nal exam on that date and at that time No early or late nal exams will be glven so please do not make airline reservations or other travel arrangements on or before the date of the nal exam If you miss His final exam you Wlll fall the course llIeSJEClHE or your points earned Quizzes and Homework Each dull and homework assignment Is Worth ID pulnts Vou wlll have at least 23 otlhese but only the too 20 Will be used in calculating your grade you get to NW the lines lowest scoresi The DZL guiues will be due Dnllne no later than one week alter they are made available to you There Vlll be one DZL quiz roughly every LE weeks The D2L quiz will be available soon aher the last lecture with relevant material and remain available on a torcredit basis until l 1 59pm one week later Only the rst attempt will be graded and rhls attempt must be completed within 2 hours ofthe rlme at whlch Ir ls started The 20g quizzes Wlll take place in lecture and wlll usually be unannounced The homework assignments Will be due no later than a week after they are provided on your websrle Homework IS due HARDCOPY a the beginning ofeclure lai eailerl Emailed lioineit39nrlt iiiI not be accepled There will be no makeup quixzos 1 l8 or makeup homework and there wlll be no late asslgnmcnts accepted coming Into class after 1105am is late and your homework will not be accepted You get to drop the three lowest scores to account rorthe time you forget the time you are sick and the lime your piinter nine out drink Grades The course grade wttl be based on Three midtemi exams 100 points each 300 points Final exam 200 points DZL Qtllues to Pop mines 5 Homework 8 drop 3 200 go Ls TOTA 700 points The mree midterm exams w lll test material presented ln the section of the course lntmedlately preceding the exam The nal wlll be cumulative and address the enllre course Extra credit worth a 5 at your nal grade is available tor students who come to Dr Banlne39s omce hours prepared with questions on the course material ThlS credit can be earned twice for a total increase or in t 7 pts 039 your nal grade visiting your preceptois during their otlice liotirs is worth 0 25 a up to a max at ti 5 Again you must Come With biology questlons not Just to say I m here tor my extra credit Letter grades Will be asslglted at the end at tlle semester based on youi perlermance across all tour exams and the outzzesihomeworlr students eamtng StUJUUVn ot the highest score excluding extra credit in the calculallon of the high score wlll receive an A E a gma a B 7019 a C 55439117 a D and less than 55 an E The grades are not culvert quotHS grading system is more generous to veil lliaii ctllVlIlg Posting of Exam Scores Exam scores wlll he posted Dilly on the course Webslte Please do no call or small llie lllatllictol oi the cables office to request volil39exnlii scales Appeals of Exam Scores it you tool that an error has been made in the grading oi yotir exam you must submit an appeal form to the relevant lecturer wriliin three days alter the exam scores have been posted on the course Webslte not counting Saturdays and Sundays Appeal lorrns will be available only in the course brace ESE lle Please note that ityour grade appeal is detemiined to be trivolous you may lose additional points Withdrawing from the Course All Univeroity deadlines for withdrawing wlll be strictly enrorced Please consult the Unlverslty s website at nttp llwww em zrlzona eduidatesdeadlinesdztesoeadlines aspx for the relevant deadlines Please contact Asya Roberts tor additional questions about adding or withdrawnig rroiii lhe course DRC Accommodations and Services Students needing DRC accommodations and servlces should Contact Asya Roberts as soon as possible to dISCUSS the required documentation and deadlines The Letter of identi cation tor specialized servtces must be presented to the Asya Roberts at least two Weeks prior to the flrst midterm exam student Code of Conduct and Code ofAcademic integrity you wtll be expected to abide by the student Code of Conduct and the Code of Academic integrity in all niatteis pertaining to the cotllse students caught cheating on exams or other graded work will receive a zero rorthe exam or assignment and will be brought to the relevant disciplinary authorities Repercussions include tailing the course having the transgression noted on your academic transcript andor being expelled trom the university Please review the codes and other relevant university policies at http lldeanorstudents arizonaednrcodeotacademicintegrity Cell Phones Pagers iPods etc Please ensure that your cell phones pagers and ipods are turned otr before the beginning or each class period it you are texting or otherwise occupied by your electronic device expect to get called on by the instmctor to answer a qlteStlort The instructor reserves the right to remove students trom the classroom that are being disruptive ln addition please do not use roller blades or skateboards in the classroom In a large lecture roonl such as ours it is also obviously very important that you 1 do not talk during class and that 2 it you need to leave before the end or lecture you plan ahead and sit near the doors and that you do not let the doors slant shutl Please be respectful or your fellow students and your instructors 10 Biology and The Tree of Life Ch1 21 Living Organisms 1ConsisT of one or more cells 2ConTain geneTic infor moTion 3Use geneTic infor moTion To reproduce 4Ar e geneTicolly r eloTed and have evolved 5Con conver T molecules from The environmenT inTo new biological molecules 6Con exTr ocT energy from The environmenT and use iT To do biological wor k 7Con r eguloTe Their inTer nol environmenT 22 11 Key Concest Modern biological science was founded wiTh The developmenT of 1 The cell Theory and 2 The Theory of evoluTion by naTural selecTion A phylogeneTic Tree is a graphical represenTaTion of The evoluTionary relaTionships among species Phylogenies can be esTablished by analyzing similariTies and differences in TraiTs BiologisTs ask quesTions generaTe hypoTheses To answer Them and design experimenTs ThaT TesT The predicTions made by compeTing hypoTheses 23 Of cells and microscopes he obServed a vasT number of small animals in his ExcremenTs which were mosT abounding when he was Troubled wiTh a L003eness and very few or none when he was well quot Hooke quoTing can Leeuwenhoek 1676 Sadava 9 ed Chl p4 This represenTed The discovery of bacTeria This reveals a IoT abouT whaT scienTisTs will do wiTh Their free Time 24 12 Louis Pasteur s Experiment A hypothesis is a proposed explanation A prediction is something that can be measured and must be correct if a hypothesis is valid Louis Pasteur showed that cells arise from other cells and not by spontaneous generation 25 Do Cells Arise Spontaneously I Flam mm mm in ammmm m qul llvn cru x1 m7 u mailman main 0 ame 39 am 57mumMmimw mpunummmwmmmr Wl quot IE 13 Do Cells Arise Spontaneously Experiment 39 B9 E szr W sw or milwelsh Sputumicons generetien hyeeureele cells arise sponlanenusly 1mm nenlivlng materials AllmellsAimmoalh hypothesis ceiie are prodreed only when preexisling cells gruw and dlvldei 27 menquot xnuxh rennin Do Cells Arise Spontaneously Expe men a Pasteur experiment with straightnecked flask b Pasteur experiment with wannecked quotask l 1 Place nutrient broth in 1 Place nutrient brolh in straightnecked ask swannecked ilask I quot VJli39r vapor 2 Ball to sterilize tha escapes 2 Bell to sterilize the ask kllllng any ilvlng V flask kllllng any living Wm WM cells that were in Ilia calls that were in tile broth brainl nacnyws sellle in neck a Preexisting cells enter ask irern air 3 Preexisting cells from sir are trapped In swan neck lrldla1lon at npenmneaus generation mpetneels 7 Pmdlwlinn er sparEmu usualNan hypnmeslu 7 I calls will appenr in teretlr aelie will nppeer in broth Prediction at All aollIlmmcolll hynolhn Preeietien er nlleeiietmmeeite hyeutltneie l calls will appear In Main Cells will net appear in mun m 14 Do Cells Arise Spontaneously Experlment W s lirallv Iiil39 mm LEH 1 f Spanhnooulgunaralmn Q l Eolh hummus suppurm hypmlusli whirled l oan usinn His arise orig fium Preelsting cells nctgponmneougly rmm noniiving malarial r 29 Implications of the Cell Theory Because all cells come from preexisting cells all individuals in a population of singlecelled organisms are related by common ancestry In a multicellular organism all ofthe cells present descend from preexisting cells and are also connected by common ancestry 3D 15 Science Should be Objec rive and Reliable Hypofheses mus r be Tes rable and mus r have The po ren rial of being rejecfed Resul rs of Expermenfs are Reproducible and Quan rifiable 31 A rrazine 70 million poundsyear in US and Frog Declines A rrazine is Herbicide and Endocrine Disrup ror 32 16 Biological history 22 Earth39s csoiagkammory Perl w quotmm ensrv wommmgxgmqpms Quaternary m 7mmquot iiiimm cml my Luge minim imam nxvmcl Ccnmmr Twllarv myn Dlvcnl mlluimllrirdy mammals uwumigplnms and M 1i mm m M rims m nd 139 period umwz u ms Dlvw mumm nd mi nl myr niwd quotst5 magi 14x mya Early dlilusaub nl msmmius mnnnc lnvambmhu dinmm mi quotmimm phiquot Mus m nion m imi wind lawi iii quotken mm E pimum my my mum dlwwlfy umplllham Amm E xl mi 0 mm was nfxpmes i L Maw 54 ms Eamon mussnni iisiinmmimiy i imam in my Thist divsml mi inch mm whims Mus i Palmmr 2m an mi iii wnnd 79 r spam dluwmnrl Silumm m mya Lullle sini iimsiiy HM yams him plants i a mi 010mm lam minim 4w my n lEmnniunnlrnd nlpmod F75 ulspenm i uppmrl Cambrian w vilyn Mm miiiml yhyl van din in mm aim mm im Wu vr wwml mmi phyla appml o will Pmimmimm h M M 45bllllunyaarsl Biological history 1 7 395 L 3 1 da 150 E rth millio years foams origin or Life a m n 1quot 7 B 9 Oldest fossils 13 14 15 16 17 13 19 i Photo synthesis evolves 20 21 22 23 24 75 26 iEukaryntic Multi ceiis cellular organisms 17 l 5 W 1 5 fml l u 13 Photo1 nthesi valves NIJIti cellular 33 J1 v u llm fu 35 x 1 3 a s Ea h mm Origin of Llfe a 9 m u 12 PM ass 5 Recorded history 13 H s Fhmo39 lls the 3251 5 last 5 seconds 21 of day 30 Modern humans appeared in the last 10 minutes of day 30 18 The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection In 1858 Darwin and Wallace proposed that all species are related by common ancestry DanNin and Wallace also proposed that the characteristics of species are modified from generation to generation 37 The Tree of Life The tree of life is a family tree of organisms that describes the genealogical relationships among species with a single ancestral species at its base 38 19 The Origin of the Phylogenic Tree of Life Carl Woese and colleagues studied small subunit rRNA as a means for understanding the evolutionary relationships among organisms 1 rRNA sequences should be very similar in closely related organisms but less similar in organisms that are less closely related 2 A phylogenetic tree reflects these relationships among species Branches that are close to one another represent species that are closely related branches that are farther apart represent species that are more distantly related 39 Phylogenetic Tree of Life DOMAIN BACTERIA DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN EUKARVA Plans fungi and mumzs 2m smdl hmnm us an Ihelnae at me Ems nude mnmsemslhe cnrmnn znmlnr m mum and Eulaymvs ki Wms nude mnmsmls the cnrrrmn muslin at all nrumusms dwelndzy 4D 20 Changes to the Tree of Life The tree of life indicates three major groups of organisms the eukaryotes Eukarya and two groups of prokaryotes Bacteria and Arohaea Therefore Woese created a new taxonomic level called the domain consisting of Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya The location of certain branches on the tree is hotly debated and the shape ofthe tree will continue to change as databases expand 41 Doing Biology Why Do Giraffes Have Long Necks Biologists test ideas about the way the natural world works by testing the predictions made by alternative hypotheses using carefully designed experiments Simmons and Scheepers tested the food competition hypothesis that giraffes evolved long necks by natural selection because those with long necks reach food unavailable to others mammals 42 21 The Food Competition Hypothesis Predictions Neck length is variable among giraffes Neck length in giraf fes is heritable Giraf fes feed high in trees One of the three predictions of the food competition hypothesis giraffes feed high in trees does not hold true Thus there may be better altematlve hypotheses to explain neck length in giraf39fes 43 Why Giraffes Have Long Necks a Most feeding is done below neck height 7 Males 7 Females s s E 3 m 5 5 E g 4 4 39a c a a 3 5 339 2 2 u 1 1 D i gt o A r O 20 40 0 20 40 Percentage of feeding bikes Percentage n1 feeding bites 44 22 Why Giraffes Have Long Necks b Typical feeding posture r quoti t 45 The Sexual Competition Hypothesis An alternative hypothesis is that giraffes evolved long necks because longer necked males win more fights than shorternecked giraffes and can then father more offspring Data support this hypothesis 46 23 24
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