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Lecture Notes 1/14/2016

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Lecture Notes 1/14/2016 Chem 130

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 11, Gases.
General Chemistry II
Dr. Yang
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by n/a on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 130 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Yang in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 01/18/16
Chapter  11:  Gases   CHEM  130  (Yang)  Lecture  January  14,  2016     Collision  of  Gas  Particles  and  Gas  Pressure     -­‐Gasses  are  composed  of  particles  that  are  moving  randomly  and  very  fast  in  their     containers.     -­‐A  gaseous  atom  or  molecule  exerts  a  force  when  it  collides  with:   •   a  surface   •   another  gaseous  atom   -­‐Gas  Pressure:  the  force  exerted  per  unit  area  by  gas  molecules  as  they  strike  the   surfaces  around  them     Pressure  =  force/area  =  F/A   -­‐Gas  Pressure  depends  on:   •   number  of  gas  particles  in  given  volume   •   volume  of  container   •   temperature     Gas  Pressure  Units     -­‐Pascals(Pa):  SI  unit  of  pressure,  1  Pa=1N/m 2   5   -­‐Bar:  1  Bar=10 Pa=100  kPa     -­‐Atmospheres  (atm):  1  atm=101.325  kPa   •   Atmospheres  are  a  measure  of  weight  of  air  per  unit  area.   •   Normal  Atmospheric  Pressure=  Standard  Atmospheric  Pressure  at  sea  level   •   Atmospheres  are  measured  using  a  barometer.   -­‐mmHg:  the  difference  in  the  heights  measured  in  mm(h)  of  2  connected  columns  of   mercury;  also  known  as  torr     Manometer   -­‐This  device  is  used  to  measure  the  difference  in  pressure  between  atmospheric   pressure  and  that  of  a  gas  in  a  vessel.   -­‐If  P =765  mmHg  and  h=60  then:  P =P +H  =  765+60=825  mmHg   atm gas atm   Basic  Properties  of  Gases     -­‐Pressure  (P)   *The  equations  that  express  the     -­‐Volume  (V)   relationship  among  T,  P,  V,  and  n   are  known  as  gas  laws.     -­‐Temperature  (T)     -­‐Amount  of  gas  in  moles  (m)     Simple  Gas  Laws     1.  Boyle's  Law       -­‐Robert  Boyle  (1627-­‐1691)  and  Robert  Hooke  used  a  J-­‐tube  to  measure  the         volume  of  a  sample  of  gas  at  different  pressures.       -­‐Volume  and  Pressure  are  inversely  related  (as  one  increases,  the  other           decreases)   Chapter  11:  Gases       -­‐At  constant  n  and  T,  V  is  inversely  proportional  to  P.       P V1 1 V 2 2     2.  Charles's  Law       -­‐At  constant  n  and  P,  V  increases  linearly  with  T.       -­‐Volume  and  temperature  are  directly  proportional.       -­‐Extrapolation  of  V=0  leads  to  lowest  possible  T,  which       is  the  absolute  zero.       V /1 =V /T1 2 2     3.  Avogadro's  Law       -­‐V  is  directly  proportional  to  the  number  of  gas  molecules  when  P  and  T  are         constant.       V /1 =V /n1 2 2       Ex:  At  constant  T  and  P,  when  volume  is  doubled,  the  number  of  moles  of  a  gas  is                    _______.           Answer:  doubled     Ideal  Gas  Law     -­‐The  simple  gas  laws  relationship  can  be  combined  as:     PV=nRT  where  R  is  a  constant  (0.0821  L*atm/K*mol)     Ex:  A  4.50  L  cylinder  container  contains  He  gas  at  an  unknown  pressure.  it  is  now  connected  to                 a  92.5  L  evacuated  cylinder.  When  the  connecting  valve  between  the  two  cylinders  are     opened,  the  pressure  falls  to  1.40  atm.  What  is  the  pressure  in  the  4.50  L  container?   Given:   V =1.50  L             What  simple  gas  law  relates  V  to  P?   V =  4.50  L  +  92.5  L=  97.0  L           Boyle's  Law  (P V =P V )   2 1 1 2 2 P 2= 1.40  atm         Solve:  Plug  and  chug:  P x  (4.50  L)=1    atm  x  (97.0  L)         Answer:  P =30.2  a1m     Equations  Covered:   **Remember:   P V1 1 V 2 2     V /1 =P /T1 2 2   Always  convert  temperature  to  Kelvin   V /1 =V /n1 2 2     PV=nRT   When  using  constant  R,  make  sure  units     all  match.      


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