PSY 1010- Lecture 1 Notes
PSY 1010- Lecture 1 Notes PSY 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Belson on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Amy Kohl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Chp 1 1/14/16- Lecture notes What is Psychology? A. The scientific study of behavior and mental processes a. Scientific: Answering questions objectively based on observable facts, data, and established methods b. Behavior: Observable c. Mental Processes: Thoughts, feeling, sensations, perceptions, motivations, dreams, etc. Goals of Psychology: 1. Describe: Accurately and completely as possible. Tell WHAT occurred. Like, problem video game playing 2. Explain: The causes. WHY. Why do people develop problematic video games? Is it mental health, or something else? 3. Prediction: WHEN? Problem gamin is more likely during emerging adulthood. More likely when depressed. 4. Influence/Control: HOW. Find a therapy or treatment to prevent problem gaming Need for psychological science A. Not always obvious conclusions Hindsight Bias: Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. Overconfidence Bias: When a persons subjective confidence in their judgement is greater than the objective accuracy of their judgement. Students often underestimate how long it will take to finish an assignment Material feels really familiar and seems to make sense so they don’t study as much Critical thinking: does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly. Examines assumptions, evaluates evidence, discerns hidden values, assesses conclusions. Scientific Attitude: A. Curiosity B. Skepticism C. Humility Scientific Method A. Theory B. Hypothesis construction C. Hypothesis testing D. Conclusions E. Report results Theory: A broad generalization about the world that is substantiated through observation and experimentation A. Falsifiable B. Based on replicated lines of research C. Concise D. Our body of knowledge in any given scientific discipline is comprised of theories Theories yield hypotheses A. Hypotheses: A specific testable prediction derived from a theory B. Gather Data: different ways to design a study, the choice depends on the question though Case Studies: Intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals, pretty rare group A. Rich description B. Can provide ideas for future research C. Limitations: a. Decreased generalizability b. Observer bias: the tendency for an observer to see what they expect to see. Pysch hospital study, normal people "hearing voices" get admitted then act fine Observation A. Naturalistic Observation-watching people behave in real/natural settings a. Limitations i. Too much going on ii. Observer effect: The tendency for people to not behave normally when they know they are being observed B. Laboratory-in a controlled setting a. Limitations i. Observer effect ii. Unnatural iii. Ethics Survey: Determine self reported attitudes, opinions, or behaviors of people A. Usually done by questioning a representative, random sample a. Population: the entire group that a researcher is interested in i. All emerging adults b. Representative sample: randomly sample group of subjects from the larger population B. Questionnaires a. Most common b. Advantages i. Cheap and easy ii. Generalize c. Problems i. Writing a good questions ii. Getting a random sample iii. Honesty Correlation ( r ): a statistical measure of a relationship between 2 or more variables A. Ranges from -1 to +1 B. Two things to look at a. Strength of the relationship i. Absolute value of the value b. Direction of relationship i. Positive or negative correlations ii. Positive, both x and y increase iii. Negative, when x increases, y decreases C. Examples a. Age and foot size= positive .70 b. Temperature and freezing= negative .95 c. Money and happiness=positive .05 D. Importance a. Whether or not something is associated b. Used to make predictions E. Limits a. Cant show causation b. Third variable problem i. The relationship between two variables may be due to a third unstudied variable Statistics are great tools but terrible when done wrong Explaining with experiments A. Participant selection a. Randomly selected to achieve representative sample b. Randomly assigned to groups B. Variables a. Operation definition: Definition of a variable that allows for objective measure i. What does healthy mean? Be specific. b. Independent Variable: The variable that is being changed by researcher c. Dependent: The variable that represents the result Groups: A. Experimental: the group exposed to the independent variable Placebo Effect: Expectations of the effect change the behavior Ethics A. Human subject boards who review studies, many scientists in different fields and possibly religious leaders Guidelines 1. People first and research second 2. Participants need to be able to make an informed decision about participation a. Participants need to be informed on risks and benefits b. Informed consent 3. Deception must be justified Participants may withdraw from study at any time Participants must be protected from risks when possible and explicitly told about risks Investigators must debrief participants, if deceptions are used they must know afterward Data must remain confidential (false names, group level averages for other research) If the study results in undesirable/unexpected outcomes for the participant, the researcher needs to detect, and correct or remove the consequences
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