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Week 1 of Notes

by: Connor bargeloh

Week 1 of Notes SAID1021

Connor bargeloh
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Covers Lectures #1 and 2 of 13 before test 1
Modern Architectural History
Jerry Larson
Class Notes
Egyptian, Greek and Roman




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Connor bargeloh on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SAID1021 at University of Cincinnati taught by Jerry Larson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Modern Architectural History in Architecture at University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 01/18/16
Architectural History Week 1: Jan 11 ­15   th Jan 11 th We went over the basics of the class and what we would be covering. ­Iconic buildings from past 200 years but we started with some of the influences for those  buildings ­Most if not all of the buildings are standing still today ­Also study questions will be given before the tests and there will be 4 on the test from each  lecture, also there will be terms (10­15) and pictures as definitions are acceptable, and there will  be buildings (will need to know building plus architect) th Jan 13   Lecture #1­ Ancient History/Classical Greece Egypt­ 3 periods ­Old Kingdom: 2700 BC­2200 BC (Near Memphis, Lybia) ­Middle Kingdom: 2100 BC­1600 BC (Near Thebes, Lybia) ­New Kingdom 1500 BC­ 1000 BC (Thebes, Lybia) OLD KINGDOM ­Mastaba –first attempt at raised tomblike structure to mark burial sites for important people ­Pylon­ type of battered (were set at a 45 degree) wall that worked as an entrance to temples  They were battered since gravity pulled the walls down and if they were at a 45 degree they were stronger  Stone was used for everything thing to help create permanent building since they Egyptian  religion was based around psydo­immortality Egyptian buildings eventually became forests of tall collumns since they wanted to use stone  beams, which were weak and normally cracked if they were to long.  ­Clearstory Window­ a slitted window to allow light in, found in temples of the Egyptians  Most of surfaces in Egyptian buildings contained hieroglyphics and they were painted.  Before napoleons invasion of Egypt not much was known in Europe of Egypt Romans imported obilisks from Egypt (tall like structures with 4 sides that narrows at the  top and end with a pyramid like shape) Greece: The City States 900 BC – 336 BC ­Classical Buildings were painted (polychromatic­multicolored) and were considered hypostyle halls (large dark room with columns, except the middle row which contained slits in the top to  allow light in) The Doric Order theory: People believed that the doric order was derived from wood constructions and were just copied  in stone as if they traded with Egyptians.  Parts of the Column: ­capital: top of the column that is usually decorative and a solid carved piece ­shaft: the main part of the column  ­fluting: the grooves running up the side of the column ­base: bottom of the column that rests on the ground or on a pedestal ­3 types of columns ­Doric: Simple column with smooth round capitals compared to the other two ­Ionic: thin and smaller than the other two types with a special capital that is specialized  with the use of volutes ­Corinthian: these are the most ornate of the columns and are distinguished by a  decorative bell shaped capital   ­Entablature: a horizontal feature toward the bottom of the roof of a building containing of the  following: ­Cornice: a solid carved piece right toward the top of the entablature ­Frieze: the middle piece of the entablature, usually flat   ­Architrave: the bottom of the entablature that rests on the top of the column Agora – marketplace area in large cities Stoa –single corridor with open area with permanent rooms behind  Chryselephantine: used to denote statues made of very precious materials such as ivory and  gold Most temples had an even number of columns on the front, the led into the temple so that there  was an opening leading into the main area. Naos­ sacred room containing the statue of the god Pronaos­ room before naos, leads into the naos The “perfect” temple was the Statue of Zues at Olypia and it is said that the rest of temples after  where just worse iterations of that temple. The statue was carved by Phidias who also sculpted  the Parthenon.  Jan 15 th Lecture #2 Hellenistic/Rome: The Republic Hellenistic in in relation to Alexander the Great who conquered most of Europe.  ­Temple of Atimis 323 BC ­Contained 9 columns ­the roman doric was centered up and they added a pedestal to the bottom of their  columns.  ­More then 3 steps ­ Used Ionic columns which had the problems of corners where they had to use a special  typed of ionic capital ­it is the largest temple ever built  ­columns were 60+ feet tall ­was the most important temple in rome Compared to Greek temples, Roman temples were very large and vertical whereas Greek where  horizontally long.  Alexandria, Egypt ­Lighthouse “Pharos” 280 BC (aka the Lighthouse of Alexandria) ­Library of Alexandria 250 BC ­Burned down when Julius Cesar burned his navy to send a message to his army that they were not leaving 7 Wonders of the Ancient World: ­Great Pyramid of khufu 2580 BC (NOT GREEK) ­Hanging Gardens of Babylon 600 BC (NOT GREEK) ­Statue of Zeus ­Mausoleum of Halicarnassus ­Temple of Artimis ­Collasus of Rhodes ­Lighthouse “Pharos” ­Named after the island that the lighthouse was built on Parts of the Arch: ­Voussoir: stones surrounding the keystone  ­Keystone: topmost stone that pushed the other stones and keeps the arch in place ­Thrust: large stone right above the buttress that the other stones set on ­Buttress: part that the arch rests on and is attached to the column or floor below the arch THE REPUBLIC: Compared to the Greek who built with nature in mind, Romans just build wherever they wanted  since they had a ton of slaves. This was true with theaters especially. ­Roman Cities ­Forum: giant open space surrounded by public market buildings ­Aqueducts carried water into the cities from outside to keep fresh mountain water for  the citizens. Today they resemble ancient ruins of old highway interchanges.  Hypocaust: a system of water and a furnace to create a hot tub and keeping the buildings warm Basilica: a large interior marketplace area with a large interior middle Velarium: a giant awning that covers roman theaters.  Circus (maximus): a large arena in which chariot races take place  


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