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Week 2 Notes - PSY 202

by: Alex Tucker

Week 2 Notes - PSY 202 PSY 202

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Psychlogy > PSY 202 > Week 2 Notes PSY 202
Alex Tucker

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Week 2 Notes + Lab
Mind and Society
Jordan Pennefather
Class Notes
psy 202, Psychology, Mind & Society, UO, Pennefather, week 2
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jordan Pennefather in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 01/18/16
Research Methodology: Chapter 2 (Day 3) 1/11/16 - Topics - Scientific Method - Types of Studies - Descriptive (describing) - Correlational (2 things are related) - Experimental (experiment) - Scientific Inquiry - Way of finding answers to empirical questions; questions that can be answered through observation & measurement - Scientific Method - Systematic procedures for observing & measuring phenomena to answer questions - Scientific Attitude - Composed of curiosity, skepticism, & humility - How The Scientific Method Depends on Theories, Hypotheses, & Research - 4 goals of psychological science - describe - predict - control - explain - Steps of Scientific Method - HOMER - Hypothesis - Operationalize - Measure - Educate - Replicate / Revise / Report - Theory - Explanation integrating principles & organizes / predicts behavior or events - Example: low self-esteem contributes to depression - Hypothesis - Testable prediction, often prompted by theory to enable us that is tested - Operationalize Constructs: Operational Definition: - Internal attributes or - Identifies a measurement Research Methodology: Chapter 2 (Day 3) 1/11/16 characteristics that cannot be procedure for measuring an directly observed external behavior - Useful for describing & explaining - Uses the resulting measurements behavior as a definition - Research Observations - Research would require us to administer tests of self-esteem & depression. Individuals who score low on a self-esteem test & high on a depression test would confirm our hypothesis. - Barker, Dembro, & Lewin (1941) - Examined weather frustration caused aggression in children - Showed young students a room full of attractive toys 1. ½ able to play right away & ½ had to wait outside door for 5 minutes - children that had to wait engaged in more aggressive play styles - Unexpected Findings Can Be Valuable - Unexpected discoveries sometimes occur - Only researchers who are prepared to recognize their importance will benefit from them - Types of Studies - Descriptive - Correlational - Experimental - Descriptive Methods - Research method involving observing & noting behavior of people or animals to provide systematic & objective analysis of the behavior - Naturalistic observation = observing behavior in its natural setting - Ex. Developmental studies of children; watching flirting in a bar - Case Study: in-depth study of 1 individual or group - Ex. Simonton (UC Davis) study of famous people like eminent scientist to study cognitive ability or prolific painter to study creativity - Bugliosi & Gentry (1974) study of Charles Manson to understand rhythm Pros of DM: Cons of DM: - Hypothesis - Low Research Methodology: Chapter 2 (Day 3) 1/11/16 generation generality - No bias of self - Observer report bias - Correlational Method - Technique whereby 2 or more variables are systematically measured & relationship between them is assessed - Expressed w/ math expression called correlation coefficient (r); a standardized measure of association that range is ±1.0 - + correlation = goes up when other value increases; height / weight - - correlation = goes up when other value decreases; vaccine / disease rate - Scatterplots - Graph comprised of points that are generate by values of 2 variables. The slope of the points depicts the direction, while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship. - 1.0 = 2 variables are perfectly correlated in + direction - 0 = no relation - -1.0 = 2 variables are perfectly correlated in – direction - prefect correlations are rare - A word of CAUTION about correlation - Correlation between ice cream sales & homicides in NYC is r=.7 - Why do ice cream sales & homicides relate so strongly? 1. Temperature; hotter it is, more ice cram sales & more homicides (3 variable) - CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION - Survey - Technique for ascertaining self-reported attitudes, opinions, or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative - Random sampling = if each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid. Pros of Survey: Cons of Survey: - Can get exactly the questions - Bias of self report (social you want desirability) - Can pick population - Representativeness of sample - Wording effects - Illusory Correlation - Perception of relationship where no relationship actually exists. - Ex. Parents conceive after adoption. Research Methodology: Chapter 2 (Day 3) 1/11/16 Conceive Don’t conceive Adopt confirming disconfirming evidence evidence Don’t disconfirming confirming adopt evidence evidence - Experimentation - Exploring cause & effect - Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes & their effects. - Many factors influence our behavior. Experiments: 1. Manipulate factors that interest us, while 2. other factors are kept under control. - Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause & effect relationships. - Laboratory Experiments - Independent variable = variable manipulated; cause - Dependent variable = variable measured; effect - Zimbardo (1970) - Noticed relationship between anonymity & antisocial behavior - Does anonymity CAUSE antisocial behavior? - Shock experiment: brought participants into lab, going delivered shock to other participant - ½ wore own clothes & name tags - ½ dressed in white coats & face hoods - anonymous = 2x as many shocks - independent = anonymity - dependent = # of shocks - Stanford Prison Experiment: Stanford students became prison guards / criminals - When people have power, they act more violent and do things that they don’t think they would do normally - Random Assignment - Assigning participants to experimental & control conditions by random assignment minimizes pre-existing differences between groups - Data Analysis Research Methodology: Chapter 2 (Day 3) 1/11/16 - Topics - Good Data - Reliability - Validity - Accuracy - Data Analysis - Descriptive - Inferential - Ethics - Reliability - Extent to which a measure is stable & constant - Validity - Extent to which experimenter can make confident statements about cause & effect - Impacted by confounds & individual differences - Accuracy - Extent to which experimental measure is free from error - Random error = value of error differs - Systematic error = value of error is constant - Statistical Reasoning - Statistical procedures analyze & interpret data allowing us to see what the unaided eye misses. - Describing Data - Meaningful description of data is important in research. Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions. - Descriptive Statistics - Measure representing typical response or behavior of group - Mean = average - Median = middle score (numerical distribution) - Mode = most frequent # - Variability - in a set of numbers, how widely dispersed values are from each other & mean - Measures of Variation - Range = difference between highest & lowest number - Standard deviation = how much scores vary around the mean Research Methodology: Chapter 2 (Day 3) 1/11/16 - Normal Curve - Symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes distribution of many types of data (normal distribution). Most scores fall near the mean. The mean, median, & mode are all located in the center. - Skewed Distribution - Measure of symmetry - Inferential Statistics - Procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers. - Making Inferences - When is an Observed Difference Reliable? 1) Representative samples are better than biased samples. 2) Less-variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones. 3) More cases are better than fewer cases. - Samples Random Sample Convenience Sample taking @ random form population taken @ random from available (selecting students from every subgroup (students from your school in country) school) **For the results of an experiment to be considered useful, the participants should be representative of the population. The best method for making this happen is random sampling, but most of the time Research Methodology: Chapter 2 (Day 3) 1/11/16 researchers are forced to use a convenience sample. Random assignment is used when the experimenter wants to test a casual hypothesis. ** - External Validity - To what extent do the findings of a study generalize to other persons & situations? - Generalizability Across People - The question then is; how can researchers tell whether the processes they are studying are universal? - How can we trust that a study done with only college sophomores captures everyday responses? - The ultimate test of an experiment’s external validity is replication (repeating study, often w/ different subject populations or settings) - Ethics - American Psychological Association publishes code of ethics; all members must respect - Includes being respectful to all people, dignity, & protecting them from potential harm - Institutional Review Boards - Groups of people (researchers, laypeople, & administrators) responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets standards of protections of participants. - Ethics in Studies - Privacy - Access to data - Informed consent - Relative risks of participation - Privacy - Some behaviors may be acceptable to observe w/o subject being aware - However, some behaviors have an expectation of privacy - Researchers should be aware of impact of questions asked. Some may be too personal or distressing. - Access to Data - Researchers need to consider who will have access to data - Also need to protect data - Confidentiality (explicit or implicit guarantee that only researcher can identify responses of participants) - Anonymity = no personal or identifiable info is collected from participant Research Methodology: Chapter 2 (Day 3) 1/11/16 - Responses can’t be linked to individuals - Informed Consent - participants have right to know what will happen to them during study (risk / benefits); usually in writing - debrief - at end of study, study procedures & goals explained - Relative Risks of Participation - benefits of knowledge gained need to be weighed against possible physical, emotional, & psychological harm to participant - risk / benefit ratio = analysis of whether research is important enough to warrant possible risks - Science & Methods - Learning about science of psychology & research methodology prepares you to learn about domains of psychology - Important for people who plan to become researchers as well as those going onto other fields. Lab #2 1/14/16 Dependent v. Independent A. Dependent = changed; independent = same B. Dependent = same; independent = changed C. No relationship If one variable goes up& other also goes up, the two variables are _____ A. + correlated B. – correlated When classifying universities into public & private, this is a _____ variable A. continuous B. discrete # pf N et fli x e pi s o d e # of sleep (hours) iClicker: True or false: When two variables are correlated, the relationship is causal (one variable causes other) A. True B. False C. Don’t know / not sure Problems interfering cause Let’s say that we found a correlation between amount of tv kids watch & level of correlation  Violent tv causes aggressive kids  Aggression causes kids to watch violent tv  Community (could be a factor)


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