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Overview of Evolutionary Thought Week 1

by: Asmita Joshi

Overview of Evolutionary Thought Week 1 ANTH 0680

Marketplace > University of Pittsburgh > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH 0680 > Overview of Evolutionary Thought Week 1
Asmita Joshi
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

Notes on what we covered in class on Jan 12th. This includes everything in and out of the powerpoint slides.
Intro to Physical Anthropology
Chi Zhang (Charles)
Class Notes
Physical Anthropology Evolutionary Thought
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asmita Joshi on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 0680 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Chi Zhang (Charles) in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Intro to Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.

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Date Created: 01/18/16
Week 1  Overview of Evolutionary Thought    What is Anthropology?    ❖ The study of a ​ll aspects of human    Four Fields of Anthropology    ❖ Physical Anthropology  ➢ Also called biological anthropology   ➢ A discipline that endeavours to understand biological evolution of humans  ➢ In order to do this, use comparative anatomy, behavior, ecology, skeletal, biology, genetics,  paleontology, geology, etc.   ➢ Did not aim to study evolution until 1950  ❖ Archaeology  ➢ Study of past human activity to understand the origin and change of human society   ➢ In Europe, it is seen as an independent discipline  ❖ Cultural Anthropology  ➢ Study the diversity of human culture  ➢ Live with local people and think as local people to understand culture  ❖ Linguistic anthropology   ➢ Study of languages in social and cultural context   ➢ Strongly interacts with cultural anthropology     Subfields of Physical Anthropology     ❖ Paleoanthropology   ➢ Study of human origin and evolution of humans   ❖ Primatology   ➢ Study of the behavior, anatomy, genetics and evolution of primates of both living and extinct  non‐human primates  ❖ Systematics  ➢ Study of the diversity of living and extinct primates (including humans) and their relationship   ❖ Human osteology   ➢ Human skeletal anatomy  ➢ Study of all details of human bones  ➢ Including variations in human bones: sex, ancestry, age, etc.   ❖ Skeletal biology  Asmita Joshi  Intro to Physical Anthro  Chi Charles Zhang  ➢ Study of the biology of bones, such as bone growth, development, relationship with other  tissues such as muscles, physiology, etc.  ❖ Paleopathology  ➢ Pathology​  ‐ any deviation from normal i.e. disease, injuries, infections  ➢ Study of ancient pathology by looking at disease markers on human remains (fossils,  skeleton, mummies)  ➢ Reveal past individuals’ living conditions, activity, identity, etc.  ➢ Helps inform the modern clinical study because many of the disease markers appear on the  bones are difficult to be captured by radiology  ➢ I.E. osteoarthritis, dental caries, rheumatoid arthritis   ❖ Bioarcheology   ➢ Study of human archaeological remains in order to understand the past society  ➢ Biocultural approach​  ‐ use biology to understand cultural  ➢ Different from paleopathology that focus more the disease itself   ➢ I.E. Transition to agriculture  ❖ Forensic Anthropology  ➢ Identifying individuals based on skeletal remains  ➢ Determine sex, ancestry, age, etc.  ➢ Limits the range of investigation  ➢ Forensic Body Farm  ■ Creating in 1981 by University of Tennessee by Dr. William Bass  ■ Study the taphonomy of human bodies  ➢ Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii   ■ During WII  ■ Trained physical anthropologists were hired to identify body remains   ❖ Human Biology  ➢ Study of the interaction between human genetics, physiology, environment, culture, society,  etc.   ➢ Biocultural approach  ❖ Molecular anthropology and comparative genetics  ❖ Evolutionary psychology        In Europe    ❖ Johann F. Blumenbach was considered father of physical anthropology  ➢ He defined human by unique anatomical features  ❖ Later, focus shifted to human anatomy, skeletal biology, human variation, races, etc.   ❖ Human evolution was studied by other people    Asmita Joshi  Intro to Physical Anthro  Chi Charles Zhang  In the United States    ❖ Franz Boas (1858‐1942) considered the father of American Anthropology  ➢ Proposed anthropology as a four‐field science  ❖ Physical Anthropology again focused on description and measurement      History of Evolutionary Thought    Greco‐ Roman Period    ❖ No authority ‐ no church or religious ruling identity   ❖ Environmental explanation of human variation  ❖ Origin of life: spontaneous  ❖ Mode of change  ➢ Progressive: Primitive to civilized society   ➢ Degeneration: Peak ‐> Degenerates ‐> Collapse  ■ Like a life cycle    Important Figures During the Greco‐Roman Period    ❖ Homer (1200‐800 BCE)  ➢ 1st to recognized variation   ➢ 1st to attribute environment for human variation   ➢ 1st proposed degeneration   ❖ Herodotus (484‐425 BCE)  ➢ Compared skulls of Persians to skulls of Egyptians   ➢ Thought that skulls cracked easier and egyptian skulls were thicker and tougher   ■ Persians wore hats ‐‐> less sun ‐‐> thin and breakable skulls  ■ Egyptians shaved their heads ‐‐> head exposed to  sun ‐‐> thick skull  ❖ Hippocrates (~460 BCE)   ➢ Father of Western Medicine   ➢ Talked about how Scythians lived in damp and cold  climate   ➢ “ruddy race”  ❖ Aristotle (~384 BCE)  ➢ Scythians had straight hair ‐‐> harsh environments  ➢ Scala Naturae ‐ Ladder of Life  ■ Order of different life forms   Asmita Joshi  Intro to Physical Anthro  Chi Charles Zhang  ■ Hierarchy of complexity or “perfectness”  ■ Spontaneous generation of lowest forms  ■ Never mentioned evolution or change  ➢ Defined mammals: have mammary glands   ➢ Defined quadruped: 4 points contact with environment  ➢ Defined humans: bipedal and rational   ■ Problem of birds who are also bipedal  ● Difference was that human knees bent forward and birds’ bent backwards  ● birds lived in the sky, so their wings touched the environment, technically 4  points of contact with environment      The Medieval (5th to 15th century)    ❖ Church and Christianity main authority   ❖ Bible was the ultimate source of answers and knowledge  ❖ Kept Scala Naturae, but renamed it into The Great Chain of Being   ➢ However, human is completely separated from animal kingdom  ➢ Reflects the order of creation   ❖ Species are fixed and cannot change  ❖ Monogenesis​ : One pair of Adam and Eve and everyone came from them  ❖ Earth is 6000 years old, calculated from the bible    Important Figures from the Medieval Period    ❖ Paul of Tarsus   ➢ 1st person who discussed racial qualities of human variations   ➢ 1st person to talk about monogenesis   ❖ St. Augustine   ➢ 1st who proposed the earth is flat  ➢ 1st person who calculated the earth’s history based on the genesis     Out of the Dark Age...until Darwin (15th to 19th century)    ❖ Filling missing links in the Great Chain of Being  ❖ Time spent in nature to perfect the chain  ❖ Great Exploration   ➢ People met different populations of humans they never knew about   ■ Polygenesis​ : Different populations came from different Adams and Eves  ➢ Defined civilization by metal tools  Asmita Joshi  Intro to Physical Anthro  Chi Charles Zhang  ■ Metallurgy = europeans = civilization   ■ Many groups did not make metal tools, so less civilized    Important Figures 15th ‐ 19th Century    ❖ Kondrad von Gesner (16th century)   ➢ Swiss naturalist  ➢ Introduced “​ genus​” but it had a very vague definition   ➢ Excluded human from classifications  ➢ 1st recognized ancient stone tools  ■ “​ ceraunia”  ➢ Identified stone tools as primitive   ■ Concluded that ancient society must be primitive  ➢ Identified Mode of change as Primitive to Civilized      ❖ John Ray (17th century)  ➢ English Naturalist  ➢ Father of Systematics  ➢ 1st who introduced “species” as unit of classification   ■ Species ​ is a unit of creation   ● Has distinct features  ● Cannot interbreed, so it stays distinct  ◆ Early idea of reproductive isolation  ➢ Also did not classify human with other organisms   ❖ Edward Tyson (17th century)  ➢ English Anatomists  ➢ First to dissect a chimpanzee  ■ Identified it as an Orangutan  ➢ Recognized the extreme similarity between human and chimp  ■ Differentiated them by say humans have souls and  chimps do not  ❖ Carl Linnaeus (18th century)  ➢ Swedish Botanist  ➢ Father of Modern Taxonomy  ➢ Binomial Nomenclature   ■  Formal way to record species in a hierarchical manner  ● Group within group classification  ● Italicized   ■ Adopted and used “species” from John Ray  Asmita Joshi  Intro to Physical Anthro  Chi Charles Zhang  ■ Adopted and used  “genus” from Conrad von Gesner  ➢ Created the first edition oSystema Naturae ​in 1735  ■ 1st person who classified human with other animals  ■ However, still divided humans and primates  ● Humans under the order human  ● Non human primates under the order ​ anthropomorpha   ➢ 10th ed of ​Systema Naturae​ in 1758  ■ The order ​anthropomorpha​  referred to primates  ● Put humans in the genus ​Homo  ● Did not know how to define humans still  ◆ Used “nosce te ipsum” meaning know thy self   ❖ Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752‐1840)  ➢ German Physician and Anatomist   ➢ Father of Physical Anthropology   ➢ First to define humans by anatomical features  ■ Erect posture  ■ Broad pelvis  ■ Vertically implanted incisors   ■ Two hands (grasping and long thumb) and two feet (non grasping big toe)   ● Called them B​imana ​meaning two hands  ● Other primates had “four hands”  ◆ Called the ​Quadramana​  meaning four hands  ➢ Samuel Morton (1799 to 1851)  ■ Father of American Physical Anthropology   ■ Believed strongly in polygenesis   ● Every race was created separately and had certain unchangeable  characteristics  ■ Craniometrics   ● Cranial measurements to inference intellectual capacity and ability of a race  ● Large skull means more brain capacity  ● Caucasians had the largest brain capacity and Blacks had the lowest capacity  ◆ Racism  ➢ Comte de Buffon (1707 ‐ 1788)  ■ French Naturalist  ■ First to question the fixation of species and break it   ■ Theory of “Degeneration”​  = change  ● Human originated in Asia  ◆ Because Asia had the oldest civilizations  ● One group moved to Europe  ◆ Degenerated into Europeans  ● Another group moved to Africa   Asmita Joshi  Intro to Physical Anthro  Chi Charles Zhang  ◆ Degenerated to Africans  Asmita Joshi  Intro to Physical Anthro  Chi Charles Zhang 


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