GEOG 150 -Week 1 and Week 2
GEOG 150 -Week 1 and Week 2 Geog308
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camila Monchini on Monday January 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog308 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Pompeii, Brian in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Global Geography (Diversity) in Geography at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 01/18/16
Notes – 01/07/16 (Chapter 1) Geography Matters: The spatial org. of human activity and of people’s relationships is CRITICAL to understanding local global events/phenomenon. Place Matters: Intersection of social, cultural, political, + economic process affects opportunities + limitations of the populations 2010 Food Riots in Mozambique o outrage over rising rising costs and shortages of food and fuel (food dependent on fuel) o 30% increase in the price of bread sparked protests o Low on human development index-175/179 RE-PRESENTATION: certain vantage point-“crisis of representation” o Positivism- o Blue Marble o Geographic Tools: visualization (imagining and presenting spatial relationships)-subjective, dynamic + contested Prime Meridan-human construct-due to history of merchant trading o Different nationalities, different PM-England an empire so it was decided upon GIS (Geographical Information System)-container of maps (topographical, climate, etc.) o Integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing and managing topographical data o Ethical concerns: collecting the data & how it’s used o Everything has spatial data/attributes Maps: A two-dimensional graphical representation of the surface of the Earth o All maps contain distortion-the farther it is from the standard line/point the more distorted it is o Conformal: correction proportions and shape o Equal Area CAN’T BE BOTH Mercator projection: maintains shape, not size Peters projection: maintains size, not shape Spatial Analysis (quantitative): Location, Distance, Space, Accessibility, Spatial Interaction o Transportation, economical o Study of geographic phenomena as an arrangements of points Location: in terms of lat. & long. vs. relativity Distance: measured, relative (cost/time), personal perception Friction of distance/distance-decay-the greater the distance, less closeness (i.e. friendship) harder to maintain Spatial Interaction: Time-Space Convergence Spatial Diffusion: o Reggae Music (spread through hierarchical expansion (nodes) i.e New York, Los Angeles o 2014 Ebola Breakout 2 Regional Analysis (qualitative): Regionalization, Landscape, Sense of Place Notes-01/12/16 (Chapter 1) Regional Analysis: o Functional Regions: shared economic, political or social organization i.e. European Union Regionalism: groups that co-exist/function with distinctive identification Sectionalism: Extreme identification with regional rather than state authority i.e. Kurdish People Irredentism: assertion that a minority outside its borders belongs culturally i.e. Russia invading Ukraine o Landscape: visible/aesthetic features that accumulate through human activity Ordinary: reveal habitual activity Symbolic: features that represent powerful, meanings/associations o Sense of place: subjective feelings evoked by associations, memories or experiences Insider/outsider-nostalgia Lifeworld: taken-for-granted activities Inter-subjectivity: shared meanings from everyday experiences 3 Notes-01/12/16 (Chapter 2) 1.3 billion practicing Muslims o 20k-30k are ISIS affiliated (.00001% of Muslim pop.) o 100k radicalized Obliteration of space vs. importance of place o Transportation o Difference in where resources are located (resource endowments) o Territorial o Resiliency of local culture France getting wearied of loss of French music o Legacy of the past/traditions Agriculture -> Urbanization -> Industrialization Evolution of Modern World o Organized in mini-systems o Archaic way of life (substance based on agriculture) Effects: pop. growth, settlement patterns, kinship groups (family/religious beliefs), specialization (people have skills), barter economy (trade) City of Ur: 200,000 pop. Advancements in irrigation, waste management, transportation Places can only be as big as the area can support (i.e. water, food, etc) Urbanization o City-States-impressive advancements in networks/infrastructure o Infant capitalism: i.e The Silk Road o Cartography-Early Chinese/Islamic Geographers- better representations of the world Al-Istakhri 4 Kangnido Colonialism o White Man’s Burden: racialized, need to civilize everyone o Religious reasons o Law of diminishing returns (tendency for productivity to decline after a certain point- investing more money/capital then you see a drop in rate of return) Limiting factors of Environment In Europe: pressure on farmable land Technology limited by available resources o Diameter of waterwheels o Span of bridges o Grain mills o European merchant capitalism (profit motive)- move away from barter (currency) o Spatio-Temporal Fix-action required to avert a crisis in accumulation of capital where resources are near depletion Spatial Fix-solving supply/accumulation problems by searching out new space of resource extraction Temporal fix- investing long-term solutions to secure future resource availability i.e. California extracting water from Colorado (spatial fix) + building a dam (storage=temporal fix) REACTION: OTHER SPACES DISLIKE BEING EXPLOITED o Legacy of Colonialism Accumulation by dispossession- colonizers profit from theft & degradation Subverts entire pop. & depletes environments 5 OVERCOMES LIMITING FACTORS OF OWN ENVIRONMENT o Reciprocal relationship between environment & people o Imperialism-extension of power through direct/indirect control of economic & political spheres British Industrialization o Ability to innovate and use new resources o Changed workday, density of where people live Frederick Engel’s Conditions of the Working Class o Hegemony: New world leadership (British Empire) Medicine (use it to colonization) People chose to accept subordinate status (without visible force) by their acceptance of cultural, social & political practices that are unjust/unequal o i.e. gender pay gap Rise of capitalism changed spatial organization Changed everyday life 6
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