TXMI 3530 Chapter Three Notes
TXMI 3530 Chapter Three Notes TXMI 3530
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Pacilio on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TXMI 3530 at University of Georgia taught by Laura McAndrews in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Apparel Quality Analysis in Retail at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
CHAPTER THREE: RAW MATERIALS SELECTION AND PERFORMANCE • Raw materials: fibers, yarns, and unfinished fabrics created by mills for use in apparel products o Animal skins, fur, leather, etc. as well • Fiber content, yarn construction, fabric count, weight, color, and finish • Materials must be compatible with one another and end use FABRICS • Fabric: a substrate composed of fiber and yarns that have been woven, knitted, or chemically, thermally, or mechanically bonded • Materials are an indicator of quality • Materials count for a significant proportion of cost • Textile inspection, testing, and analysis throughout production à better understanding of specification requirements, standards, and expectations Fibers • Fiber: the smallest unit within the structure of a textile fabric having a minimum length-to-width diameter ration of 100 to 1 o Can be composed of cellulose, protein, or manufactured from an organic or inorganic base • Cellulose fibers: cell walls of seeds, leaves, stems, or bast (inner bark) • Natural animal: hair, feathers and down, and silk • Manufactured synthetic: the chemical binding of monomers to create inorganic polymer chain structures that are extruded as filament fibers • Staple fibers: short; range in length from 3/8 inch to 19.5 inches o All natural fibers are staple fibers with the exception of silk • Filament fibers: long fibers that can be cut into staple lengths ranging from one inch to eight inches (known as tow), or they can be left in one continuous strand o The only natural is silk (usually 1,600 yards) • Spinneret forms the size, cross-sectional shape and texture • Fiber performance properties relate directly to the elements of quality: performance, durability, serviceability, conformance, and aesthetics • Aesthetic and comfort: surface texture, luster and density, hang and drape, thermal retention, absorbency, and resiliency • Durability: resist physical and mechanical deterioration, functionality à resist abrasion, bending, flexing, stretching, and pulling à retain size and shape • Conformance: safety (flammability and toxicity) • When one property is enhanced, it could negatively affect another Yarns • Singles yarn: can be made from one continuous filament, one strand of filament fibers, or by twisting stable fibers together • Ply yarns: consist of two or more yarns twisted, wrapped, entangled, or chemically bound together o Typically provide more strength to the fabric • Z-twist: have a spiral of diagonal lines that extend from the upper right to the lower left o When held vertically and rolled to the right, will untwist • S-twist: yarns extend from the upper left to the lower right o Rolling to the left will untwist it o Direction of twist doesn’t impact quality • Turns per inch (tpi) or turns per centimeter (tpcm): impacts quality, appearance, and performance o Higher twist: more durable, possess greater strength, and have increased resistance to abrasion § Smoother appearance and more lustrous surface Fabric Construction • Fabric construction: the structure of the material o Methods: weaving, knitting, chemical bonding, mechanical entanglement, thermal fusion • Harnesses: frames that hold the heddles (needle-like wires) that are threaded with warp yarns o Raised and lowered to accommodate movement of the filling yarn passing back and forth to weave the fabric with each pass o Woven: interlacing at 90 degrees • Basic weave structures: plain, twill, and satin • Plain weave: created using two harnesses with a shuttle carrying the filling yarns passing over and under the warp yarns, alternating each row • Balanced plain weave: constructed of warp and fillings yarns, having the same size, type, and number of yarns in both warp and filling directions • Unbalanced plain weave: when the number of warp yarns differs from the filling yarns in size, type, and amount o Can have a ribbed texture • Twill weave: using three or more harnesses, whereas the shuttle carrying the filling yarn crosses over two or more warp yarns, then passes under one or more yarns, creating a diagonal line in the right or left direction o Right-hand twill: when the diagonal line extends from the lower left to the upper right o Left-hand twill: a diagonal line that extends from the lower right to the upper left o Can be balanced and unbalanced à even and uneven o Uneven twill: warp-faced: more warp yarns on front; weft-faced: more warp yarns on the back • Satin weave: variation of an exceptionally unbalanced twill weave that uses between five and 12 harnesses o Yarn passes over four or more yarns before passing under one o The yarns “float” over the surface o Warp-faced satin: warp yarns that float on surface o Weft-faced satin: filling yarns floating on the surface • Advanced/specialized weave: dobby, double cloth, jacquard, and pile • Dobby weave: a geometric patterned structure • Jacquard weave: a figured pattern or motif structure that adds pattern • Pile weave: an additional set of yarns (warp or filling) that are woven into the base and appear as loops on the surface • Double cloth: weaving two fabrics on the same loom where the two layers are interlocked by another set of yarns that is interlaced to attach the layers together • Knit: depends on the direction in which the loops are formed o Weft and warp knits o Wales: the vertical rows of stitches or loops that run in the lengthwise direction o Courses: the rows of stitches or loops that run horizontally in the crosswise direction of the fabric o Guage: indicates the number of wales per inch, the fineness of the knit, the number of needles per inch used in a machine to create knit fabrics, and the size of the stitch o Four types of stitch: knit/plain, purl/reverse, missed, and tuck • Nonwovens: fabrics constructed as fiber web structures rather than with yarns o Include composite and felt o Can be produced with or without a fusible coating and can be used to add shape or support as interlining materials for apparel products Colorant and Finish • The ability of a fiber and fabric to retain its color is essential • Colorants: the dyes, pigments, and optical brighteners used to apply color to fibers, yarns, fabrics, and garments • Dyes: complex water soluble organic molecules comprised of two parts o Chromophore - provides the color o Auxochrome – delivers solubility and bonding capabilities o Most dyes are absorbed into the fibers and don’t require a binding agent (mordant) o Not all dyes can be accepted by all fibers • Pigments: used for adding color to fibers and materials o Not water soluble and require binding agents o They stay on the surface and don’t penetrate the fiber o In darker shades, can cause stiffness in fabrics • Solution dyeing – dope dyeing o Pigment is added to the liquid solution prior to extrusion into fibers • Optical brighteners, fluorescent dyes, or whiteners: colorless compounds that add brightness to white fabrics o Fabrics glow when exposed to ultraviolet fluorescent light sources (black lights) o Provide fabrics with the appearance of intense white • Colorants can also be applied through printing: dry, wet, and digital • Dry prints: utilize dry pigment that is adhered to the substrate (base material) by a resin binder that must be heat cured o Flatbed and rotary screen used to apply dry and wet prints • Wet prints: utilize liquid dyes that are made into a paste with thickening agents and printed onto the fabric, which requires aging (steaming), washing, and rinsing to remove the thickening agents • Digital prints: can be created with either disperse dyes or pigment inkjet inks and are applied to the substrate by a digital inkjet printer o Binding agents are necessary for high-viscosity pigments, whereas low viscosity inks only need additional processing o 3D printing is also now being used to create texture o Most economical/low cost choice: digital printing for sample yardage or for low-volume yardage, sublimation printing for customized short runs, or rotary screen printing for high-volume production yardage o Set-up for rotary screen is expensive, but running it is cheap • Textile finishes: applied to fabrics to change their properties in an effort to produce a desired effect for the end product • Dry finishes: can change the physical appearance; applied using mechanical means • The application of chemicals in the form of a liquid or foam that requires drying or curing changes physical performance • Aesthetic finishes are selected to change the appearance, hand, or drape of a material, whereas functional finishes are used to enhance the performance characteristics of a material • The longevity of finishes range from permanent (calendaring [synthetic fibers and rollers are hot], fulling, mercerizing, napping and sueding, plissé, shearing, stiffening, washing, and water-proofing) to temporary o Durable finishes are weakened each time the garment is cleaned, and eventually it will wear off completely § Antimicrobial, antiseptic, antibacterial, calendaring (when rollers are cool), durable press, flame-resistance, insect control, soil release, and stain- and water-repellant finishes o Semi-durable finishes: virtually removed after several cleanings, but some can be renewed when dry-cleaned § Antistatic (treated fiber), crease-resistant, flame-resistant, softening o Temporary finishes are removed after just one cleaning § Antistatic (treated fabric), calendaring, softening, and stiffening (starch) • Type of finish and permanency level affect cost and quality SUPPORT MATERIALS AND SHAPING DEVICES • Findings: support materials and shaping devices that add function • Decorative elements: trims and surface embellishments • Support materials: integral parts of the construction of many garments and are comprised of separate plies of fabrics that reinforce portions of a garment and can allow for various silhouettes to be achieved o Necklines, armholes, waistbands, and plackets with buttonholes o Provide additional stiffness to maintain shape of collars and cuffs o Provide clean finish to inside of garments and can be thermal o Consider compatibility of support materials with shell fabric, type and style of garment, end use, fabric weight, surface textures, finish, and care method o Linings, fusible and sewn-in interlinings, tapes, stays, and elastic • Shaping devices: provide structured support for garments o Shoulder pads, sleeve heads, sleeve puffs, bra cups, lingerie underwire and lingerie separating wire, boning, and collar stays o Strict tolerance for shrinkage and growth, appearance retention, resistance to abrasion, and colorfastness TRIM AND SURFACE EMBELLISHMENTS • Trim: often added when a designer wants to embellish a garment with decorative linear materials o Can be attached to the surface of the garment or inserted and sewn into a seam to enhance the design o Braid, cording, fringe, lace, passementerie, piping (cordedge), and ribbon • Surface embellishments: applique, beads, embossing, embroidery, foiling, rhinestones, screen printing, sequins, flocking, and trapunto o Can add a focal point or emphasis o Can add dimension • Problems: shrinkage that causes puckering, dyes that bleed, color loss, or deterioration due to dry-cleaning solutions, and delamination due to incompatible care methods • Should enhance the garment’s appearance and aesthetic appeal and not hinder functionality and performance properties while maintaining a consistent quality level
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