Chapter 1 Concepts and Key Terms
Chapter 1 Concepts and Key Terms Bio 2200
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michaela Oesterle on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2200 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Thomas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Microbiology in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Eugh...this class is soo hard! I'm so glad that you'll be posting notes for this class
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Chapter 1 Summary Notes Chapter 1 is mainly just an introduction to microbiology, a history of it, and general info about microorganisms and their makeup. No key sections except all of them… To help further understand the concepts, I suggest writing things in your own words and if you still need help, feel free to contact me for clarification at email@example.com Please read my quick info down at the end for future notes setup. 1.1 Microorganisms are single-celled microscopic organisms that are essential for other life forms and the planet. Microbiology has its basic and applied components, which generate new knowledge and solve problems. 1.2 Cells have different parts based on if it is a prokaryotic cell or eukaryotic cell. It is defined by its genomes, but all cells carry out metabolism, growth, and evolution. 1.3 Diverse microbial populations were widespread on earth for billions of years before higher organisms appeared. Cyanobacteria were extremely important because they oxygenated the atmosphere. Main phylogenetic lineages are bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. 1.4 Microorganisms live in populations that interact with other populations to form microbial communities. The activities by the communities have large impacts on the physical and chemical properties of their habitats. Microbes are the largest biomass on earth and reside in terrestrial and oceanic deep sub-surfaces. 1.5 Microorganisms can both benefit and harm humans, though they usually benefit us. Microorganisms greatly impact agriculture, food, energy, and the environment. 1.6 Robert Hooke was the first to describe microorganisms, and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe bacteria. Ferdinand Cohn found the field of bacteriology and discovered bacterial endospores. 1.7 Louis Pasteur devised ingenious experiments proving that living organisms do not arise spontaneously from non-living matter. He developed many concepts and techniques central to the science of microbiology, including sterilization and key vaccines. 1.8 Robert Koch developed a set of criteria called Koch’s postulates for linking cause and effect in infectious diseases. Koch also developed the first reliable and reproducible means of obtaining and maintaining microbe in pure cultures. 1.9 Martinus Beijernick and Sergei Winogradsky explored soil and water for microorganisms that carry out nutrient cycling and the biodegradation of particular substances. The created enrichment culture technique, concepts of Chemolithotrophy and nitrogen fixation. 1.10 The twentieth century founded new types of basic and applied microbiology. These paved the way for the current era for molecular microbiology with genomic sciences center stage. KEY TERMS Cell wall- a rigid layer present various other membrane-enclosed Microbial ecology- the study of outside the cytoplasmic organelles; eukarya microorganisms in their natural membrane; it confers structural environments Evolutions- descent with strength on the cell and prevents osmotic lysis modification leading to new forms Microorganism- a microscopic or species organism consisting of a single cell Chemolithotrophy- a form of or cell cluster or a virus metabolism in which energy is Extremophiles- microorganisms that inhabit environments Motility- the movement of cells by generated from the oxidation of unsuitable for higher life forms, some form of self-propulsion inorganic compounds such as environments that are Communication- interactions extremely hot or cold, or Nucleoid- the aggregated mass of DNA that makes up the between cells using chemical environments that are acidic, signals alkaline, or extremely salty chromosome of prokaryotic cells Nucleus- a membrane-enclosed Cytoplasm- the fluid portion of a Flagella- tail to help the cells swim structure in eukaryotic cells that cell, bounded by the cytoplasmic around membrane contains the cell’s DNA genome Genetic exchange- the transfer of Organelles- a bilayer-membrane- Cytoplasmic membrane- a genes or the acceptance of genes semipermeable barrier that between prokaryotic cells enclosed structure such as the mitochondrion, found in separates the cell interior from the environment Genome- an organism’s full eukaryotic cells complement of genes Differentiation- modification of Pathogen- a disease-causing Genomics- the mapping, microorganism cellular components to form a new structure, such as a spore sequencing, and analysis of genomes Prokaryote- a cell that lacks a membrane-enclosed nucleus and Domain- one of the three main evolutionary lineages of cells: Growth- in microbiology, an other organelles; bacteria or increase in cell number with time archaea bacteria, archaea, and eukarya Habitat- the environment in which Pure culture- a culture containing a Ecosystem- organisms plus their nonliving environment a microbial population resides single kind of microorganism Koch’s postulates- a set of criteria Ribosomes- a structure composed Endospores- allows microorganisms to survive in for proving that a given of RNAs and protein upon which microorganism causes a given new proteins are made difficult environments disease Spontaneous generation- the Enrichment culture technique- a method for isolating specific Macromolecules- a polymer of hypothesis that living organisms monomeric units that includes the can originate from nonliving microorganisms from nature using specific culture media and proteins, nucleic acids, matter polysaccharides, and lipids incubation conditions Sterile- free of all living organisms Metabolism- all biochemical and viruses Enzyme- a protein catalyst that functions to speed up chemical reactions in a cell reactions Microbial community- two or more Eukaryote- a cell have a populations of cells that coexist and interact in a habitat membrane-enclosed nucleus and Some Quick Info A little about the setup of my notes and some important tidbits: After every chapter, I will post the concepts and key terms like done above. Before the exams when I will have a better idea of what will be on it, I will create a study guide specifically explaining each topic. Though reading the concepts of each chapter will help you grasp the big picture, the study guides will be what are the most help for passing the exams. I understand that buying each chapter notes will get expensive so I will create a set of notes that will be all the needed chapter concepts once we finish those chapters in class. DO NOT be afraid to send me an email for clarification, elaboration, or explanation of a topic or idea discussed. Feedback on my notes is appreciated too; we all want to get an A I hope you enjoy and these help you out! Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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